Bac-T - Gram(-) 2

naxucazo's version from 2017-12-13 03:20


Question Answer
what type of bact are these? (gram and shape)g neg rods
what are these bact generally associated with?generally respiratory dz, might also be involved in septicemia and other conditions, incld birds
Pasturella, mannheimia shape? staining? agar for isolation? O2 needs?cocco-bacillary, bipolar staining, BA for isolation, aerobic


Question Answer
Pasturella, mannheimia is predisposed by what?stress/viral infections
which dz of Pasturella, mannheimia dont require predisposing factors?hemorrhagic speticemia in cattle, fowl cholera in birds
FOWL CHOLERA causes what? what is affected by it?causes septicemia (bact invasion of blood+tissues). affects wild ducks, geese, domestic flocks
how is fowl cholera xmitted?via oral or resp. routes, or via eye
are fowl cholera saphrophitic?no, need host
hemorrhagic septicemia affects what animal? where is this dz usually (geographically)cattle, buffalo, deer, elephants. mainly in TROPICS.
type of dz hemorrhagic septicemia is?acute, severe (almost as bad as anthrax)
is hemorrhagic septicemia present in canada/USA?no, shouldnt be. if see, report immediately
symptoms of hemorrhagic septicemia ?fever, hemorrhages, edema (often submandibular), enteritis, death
how do you diagnose hemorrhagic septicemia?take blood smear. look for bipolar staining.
is there a vaccine for hemorrhagic septicemia?yes, but you must know which one to use based on strains/your location in the world
what does P. multocida cause?snuffles in RABBITS. Wound infections in Cat, dogs, humans. Fowl cholera in birds. Pneumonia in cattle, sheep, pig
where does P. multocida live?carried by most animals
how does P. multocida cause dz?stress and viral infections leads to dz
symptoms of P. multocida in rabbits?nasal discharge, epiphora (tears), conjunctivitis, sneeze/cough, maybe pneumonia/weightloss/death
peracute cases of snuffles in rabbits (what happens? )septicemia--> death
what does P. multocida cause in cattle/pigs/sheep? what kind of invader is it?Pneumonic problems-- secondary invader
what can P multocida cause in cats/dogs/humans? type of flora that does this? main way of entering?wound infection. C-type oral flora. usually enter through bites/scratches/licking
what can P multocida type D cause in pigs? which type of flora causes this? what might this be combined as?*atrophic rhinitis* Type D. alone OR in combo with bordetella bronchiseptica
how does atrophic rhinitis inflict its damage?pathogenic strains are positive for DERMONECROTOXIN, which lyses turbinate bones
what predisposes pigs to get atrophic rhinitis?overcrowding, poor ventilation, ammonia in air, lack of immunity in piglets
what are the virulence factors of P. Multocida? (3)Capsule (resist phagocytosis), Endotoxin (fever, intravascular coagulation, hemorrhages, for chicken- necrotic foci in liver), Exotoxin (produced by D-strains "dermonecrotoxin")
how can you diagnose P. multocida?blood or spleen smears (coccobacilli), culture blood, spleen (non hemol colonies, no MAC growth), culture exudates/lung/transtracheal wash, culture nasal swabs from pigs/rabbits (atrophic rhinitis/snuffles)
does P multocida grow on Macconkey?no
how do you treat P multocida?Rabbits=chloramphenicol or TC. Other species= TC, Trimethoprim=Sulfa
control of P multocida?Vaccines (cattle resp partially effective) (good one for hemorrhagic speticemia) (Live attenuated vx in drinking water for birds for avian cholera) (BACTERIN one for pigs, vaccinate sows and 5-8wk old piglets). For rabbits: chloramphenicol, tetracycline, or enrofloxacin. Other species- other useful drugs like TMS
(CQ) which of snuffles, blue fur, otitis, pneumonia, and conjunctivitis doesnt have to do with P multocida in rabbits?blue fur
(CQ) what is blue fur caused by in rabbits?psuedomonas arg.
(CQ) does hemorrhagic septicemia of cattle occur by contact with dogs?no

Mannheimia haemolytica (formerly Pasturella)

Question Answer
gram rxn? shape? where might it regularly be present?G-, coccobacilli, often present in URT mucosa of some healthy cattle
is Mannheimia saphrophytic?no, NEEDS a host
is Mannheimia hemolytic?yes (UNLIKE P. Multocida)
what will predispose an animal to Mannheimia infection?xportation, overcrowding, poor ventilation, fatigue
what does Mannheimia haemolytica cause in cattle?shipping fever
symptoms of shipping fever?Dyspnea, fever, soft cough, nasal discharge, anorexia due to toxin= inflammation, fibrinous pneumonia
what do the lung lobes look like in shipping fever? why? which lobes specifically?downward drainage of initial exudates causes hard, dark lobes. usually antero-ventral lobes
is the acute course of shipping fever fatal?yes
Virulence factors of Mannheimia haemolytica? (3)(1) capsule (help with colonization) (2) endotoxin (esp important in cases of speticemia), (3) Leukotoxin (toxic to rumi. leukocytes, causes lysis and impairs lung defense)
what does Mannheimia haemolytica cause in sheep and goats?pneumonia (similar to cattle), speticemia (in young), MASTITIS "Blue Bag"
how dangerous is blue bag? why?rare but often fatal due to endotoxemia
how do you diagnose Mannheimia haemolytica?exam smears, culture, transtracheal aspirate and lunch at necropsy **NO NASAL SWAB**, for mastitis, milk samples
are there vaccines for Mannheimia haemolytica for cattle? sheep? goats?yes for cattle, no for sheep and goats
what are the kinds of vaccines for cattle for Mannheimia haemolytica?OVC (elicit antibodies vs leukotoxin and surface antigens) and live attenuates (CANT USE WITH ANTIBIOTICS)
(CQ) are sheeps and goats resistant to Mannheimia haemolytica?NO
What drugs can you use for M. Haemolytica: Cetiofur, florfenicol

Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)

Question Answer
what does Francisella tularensis cause?Tularemia
what is Tularemia? Carriers?ZOONOTIC dz, endemic in north american wildlife. Rabbits are reservoirs
Tularemia aka?rabbit fever, deer-fly fever
is tulaermia able to infect humans?yes. lesions after handling infected rabbit meat. Lesions after tick bite. Also during evisceration -> pneumonia
what are the signs of Tularemia in cats?somewhat like feline plague, incld lymphadenitis, pneumonia, speticemia
most suseptible domestic species to Tularemia? who can get but is less likely?Cats. milder dz in dogs/sheeps
what sample is submitted for culture/serology?clinic material incld blood
what should be noted about Tularemia cultures?shouldnt be done in regular labs, b/c zoonotic
what is presumptive evidence of infection of Tularemia?antibody titer > 160
what can you treat Tularemia with?tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones
how do you prevent infection of Tularemia?prevent tick bites, prevent dogs/cats from hunting wildlife, prevent water contamination via wildlife excreta
is there a vaccine for Tularemia?yes, for HUMANS at high risk
(CQ) is a tick bite the only way to get Tularemia?no-- can get from animal bite/scratch, handling infected meat, aerosol, etc.

Haemophilus and similar bacteria

Question Answer
gram? shape? type of colonies?g-, coccobacilli/pleomorphic. small colonies
what kind of media do you need for Haemophilus?enriched media (some need hemin (X-factor) and/or nicotinaminde adenine dinucleotide (V-factor) )
where does Haemophilus/similar bact usually live?STRICT PARASITES (resp/genital/CNS)
(CQ) are Haemophilus and similar bacteria saphrophytes?no
what can be said about strains of Haemophilus and similar bacteria ?New taxonomy based on genetic relationship w/ H. influenzae. H. Pleuro= Actin. pleuro (more related to A. lig). H. equigenitalis= taylorella equi. H. somnus= Histophilus somni. H. Paragallinarum= Avi. paragall
what does actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae cause?contagious pleuroneumoniae of swine
what species is affected by actinonbacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae? and wherepigs. Several serotypes in US and Canada
what is the mortality of actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae?very fatal, esp in dz-free herds. Acute= death in 24 hrs
signs/symptoms of actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae in pigs?fever, bleeding from nose/mouth (necrotizing vasculitis in lung), hemrrhage
what happens to the survivors of actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae?chronic lesions, abscessation, pleuritic adhesions affecting growth
how does actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae affect preg sows? young pigs?sow= septicemia kills fetus. young pig=septicemia and death
(CQ) is turbinate atrophy associated with actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae infection?no
what are the virulence factors of actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae? (3)(1) capsule (2) endotoxin (thrombi, interlobular edema, damage to vasculature) (3) cytotoxins (macrphage toxins, hemolytic toxins)
describe immunity to actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae?Abs protect against homologous types, some cross protection, colostrum for piglets
describe culturing of actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae? for how long?culture clinical samples on BA WITH STAPH STREAK. 24-48 hrs. Tiny hemolytic colonies near streak
is actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae hemolytic? Screening?yes. Use commercial kits to test pigs. Actinopleuro ELISA kit. Serum samples tested for Ab
why do you culture actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae with a staph streak?the staph supply the V-factor for it to grow
is there a vaccine for actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae?yes, bacterins (killed/attenuated bac) reduce mortality
can you treat actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropenumoniae with antibiotics?yes with early tx, TIAMULIN, it reduces mortality but CARRIERS REMAIN
what does haemophilus parasuis cause?"Glasser's dz" (polyserositis and arthritis), also respiratory infection following SIV infection, pneumonia, death
what predisposes a pig to haemophilus parasuis?stress
age of pigs affected by haemophilus parasuis?young- 5-8 wk old
signs/symptoms of haemophilus parasuis?fibrinous polycerositis, pleuritis/peritonitis, meningitis, pyrexia, lameness, recumbancy, ~
Pathogenesis of H. parasuismucosa -> blood -> serosal/synovial surfaces
SDF pigsDisease ++
Control of H. ParasuisBacterins help
H. Parasuis hemolytic? Carried wherenon-hemolytic. In pigs nasopharynx


Question Answer
(CQ) does histophilus somni have male animals playing a role?yes
(CQ) are rodents principal resivours of histophilus somni?no
ITEME less acute sings: fever, staggering, circling, blindness, coma, death
ITEME peracute: death
Question Answer
ITEME lesions, where and whatCNS- meningitis, thrombosis, necrosis, hemorrhage. Lesions on retina, respiratory disease (bronchopneumonia), myocarditis (after septicemia), endometritis, abortion, pneumonia, arthritis
ITEME tx: tetracycline, oxytetacycline (early on)
Question Answer
ITEME vx and control?yes, monitor, culture semen, prepuce washing, ELISA. Vx decrease mortality.
Question Answer
what does taylorella equigenitalis cause?contageous equine metritis (CEM)
where is there no CEM? where is there?none in canada, some in US/Germany/Switzerland
symptoms of CEM?uterine inflammation, edema, mucopurulent exudate in uterus
what would you see in a smear of CEM?g- rods
how do you diagnose CEM?culture vaginal discharge on blood agar
how do you establish a horse is free from CEM?neg culture 3 times in 2 weeks
treatment of of CEM?(1) intrauterine irrigation of chlorhexidine (2) parenteral ampicillin or cefotaxime or gentamicin (3) for stallion, chlorhex wash and application of 2% chlorhexidine cream. Some suggest nitrofurazone ointment (banned in some places). Japan culled. Vx not used
does CEM have a vaccine?no
(CQ) is the causal agent of CEM culturable or not?it IS culturable


Question Answer
what does B. pertussis cause?whooping cough in human children
what does B. bronchiseptica cause?animal pathogen (rarely causes human dz)
is B. bronchiseptica zoonotic?RARELY causes human dz
what does B. bronchiseptica cause in dogs?canine tracheobronchitis-- kennel cough!
is B. bronchiseptica usually a primary or secondary infection?usually secondary to viral infections
how is B. bronchiseptica spread?usually aerosol
species/age group affected by B. bronchiseptica?young dogs
signs of B. bronchiseptica?URT inflammation, mucus. coughing 2-3wk. retching/vomiting, shedding 2-3mo. WEIGHT LOSS
Pathogenesis of B. BronchisepticaViral infection predispose -> attach to cilia --> cilia paralysis from extracellular AC -> inflammation and mucus accumulation
how do you diagnose B. bronchiseptica?aspirate culture
what do you culture B. bronchiseptica on? what do they look like?grows on MAC (unlike pasturella), g- coccobacilli
when is treatment needed, what is treatment?required if cough persists/ if bronchopneumonia is present. tx is TMS, tetracycline, or enrofloxacin
is there a vaccine for B. bronchiseptica?live intranasal and other types, annual vaccination needed for full protection
what can bordetella cause in cats?feline broncho-pneumonia
where can cats be infected with B. bronchiseptica?from exposure via dogs
(CQ) will B. bronchiseptica cause buboes (abscessed lymph nodes)?no
prognosis of feline B. bronchiseptica?more severe, systemic manifestations (cyanosis, deaths) esp in younger cats
vaccine for cats' B. bronchiseptica?yes, intra-nasal live infection avail
what can B. bronchiseptica cause in pigs?ATROPHIC RHINITIS (pasturella multocida also does this), also occasionally pneumonia
what does bordetella avium cause?turkey coryza (nasal tract inflammation)
treatment of bordetella avium?tetracyclines
vaccines for bordetella avium?yes
(CQ) are cats affected by bordetella bronchiseptica? can you use vaccines if they are?yes

Moraxella bovis

Question Answer
what does Moraxella bovis look like?g- coccobacilli
what does Moraxella bovis cause?infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis (IBKC) or "pink eye"
where is Moraxella bovis geographically?worldwide
how is Moraxella bovis transmitted?via contact with carrier animals and flies
how is IBKC perpetuated?UV rays, tall grass, flies (cause concurrent viral/mycoplasma infections)
symptoms of IBKC?photophobia, epiphora, keratitis, conjunctivitis
how does Moraxella bovis cause dz?pilli attach to cornea
virulence factors of IBKC? (5)pili, haemolysin, dermonecrotoxin, hyaluronidase, collagenase
is there vaccines for IBKC?yes, PILI VACCINE
how are calves protected from IBKC?colostral antibodies
antibiotics for IBKC?local (penicillin). parenteral (oxytetracycline)
control/prevention of IBKC?control flies (fly repellent ear tags, segregate infected cows)
(CQ) can colostrum protect calves from IBKC?yes
(CQ) is there a predisposing infection for IBKC?yes, mycoplasma infection or viral infection