B7 C7 P7 part 1

simmyhall's version from 2015-05-24 19:30

Section 1

Question Answer
To support and for movement vertabrates needAn internal skeleton
Muscles work inAgonistic pairs -as one contracts the other relaxes
Ligament Elastic holds bones together
Tendon Hold muscles to bones , transmit the forces between muscles and bones
Cartilage Covers surface of bone(smooth) reduces friction stops bones rubbing
Synovial fluid Lubricant -reduces friction
Starting an exercise programme regime Need medical and lifestyle history.....symptoms,current medication ,alcohol and tobacco use, level of current activity ,family medical history
BMI Used as a measure of fitness -based on mass and height of a person
Injuries Sprains,dislocation and torn ligaments
Sprain Redness and swelling and throbing and pain
Treatment of sprain RICE

Section 2

Question Answer
Sun rises East to west
Sidereal day Time taken for earth to rotate 360 deg on its axis (time taken for a star to return to same position) -23h 56mins
Solar day Time taken for the sun to return to same position in sky -24 hours
Why 24hoursEarth orbits sun in the same direction it spins -earth has to spin slightly more than 360 deg before sun appears in the same place
Moon time 25hours to get same position -moon orbits the Earth in the same direction Earth is rotating
Why do we see different patches of stars Earth moves round sun the direction we face is slightly different
Same day each year Same stars seen
Moon lightReflects light from sun other side In shadow
Lunar cycle Moons appearence changes during 28day orbit of Earth - full moon =all seen. New moon=dark face s us
Solar eclipse When moon is just the right size and distance away that it passes between the sun and Earth and can block out sun -only part of Earth sees full
Lunar eclipse Earth blocks sun light from moon
Planets seen with naked eyeMercury ,Saturn ,Jupiter
Retrograde Planets appear slower or backwards against relative fixed stars -all planets orbit and different speeds
Positions of objects plotted by Angle of declination- object above or below the line of the equator measured in degrees /angle of right ascension -measurement of the angle East from the vernal equinox (degrees and mins)
Celestial sphere Imaginary plane across the sky from earths equator - used to find stars if you know the stars declination and right ascension

Section 3

Question Answer
The chemistry industry synthesises chemicals onDifferent scales according to their value
Bulk chemicals Made on a larger scale - ammonia
Fine chemicals On a smaller scale -drugs /fragrances
Developing new chemical products requiresAn extensive programme of research and devellopment
The gov to protect people and environment impose strict regulations onOn chemical process, storage of chemicals , transport of them ,and research and development of them
Production of useful chemicals stagesPrepare feedstock, synthesis , separation, handling of by products and waste and monitoring purity
Green chemistry Term used to describe principles to make producing chemicals more sustainable
Sustainability depends on Whether feed stock is renewable, atom all used ,by products and waste, engery imput and outputs ,environmental impact , health and safety risk and social and economy benefits
A catalyst ( chemist looking for them -more sustainable)Speed up chemical reactions without being used up or chemically changed
Enzyme catalyst Closely monitor temp and pH
The activation energy - energy needed to break bonds to start a reaction and catalyst ...Reduce activation energy by providing alternative route for reaction -faster reaction
RFMRelative atomic masses of its elements added

Section 4