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B&B Week One

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eem8u's version from 2016-09-01 03:07

Why the Brain is different

Question Answer
Astrocyte: shape, origin, function (7)stellate, ectoderm, B/B Barrier, CNS structural framework for brain, metabolic support for neuron, micromanage chemical environment, maintain ion balance, supply glutamate, replace damage neurons
4 types of glial cellsastrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia
oligodendroglia: origin, functionectoderm, myelin sheath - one can myelinate segments of different axons (nodes exposed)
ependymal cells: shape, origin, functionepithelial-like (simple cuboidal, ciliated, microvilli), ectoderm, line ventricles and central canal - circulate and absorb CSF
microglia: shape, origin, function (when activated) rod-shaped nuclei/encircle neurons, MESODERM, no know fx at rest, act as Mphages to phagocytose degenerating neurons
3 layers of the BB barriercapillary endothelium, capillary BM, astrocyte foot processes
neuron dies after approx X minutes of anoxia5-7 minutes
name 3 brain regions sensitive to anoxiahippocampus (memory loss), purkinje cells of cerebellum, cortical layers 3 & 5
4 steps to brain injury responseastrocytosis, formation fo reactive astrocytes (cytoplasm), swells/more eosinophilic/develop processes (glial fibers), glial fibers coalesce to form scar, microglia activate & encricle nueron & phagocytosize
differences between cytotoxi and vasogenic edema(See table) cause, location of edema, matter affected, commonly seen with, responsive to therapy?
Monroe-Kellie Doctrine: definition and equationskull has a fixed volume comprised of 1) brain matter 2) CSF 3) Blood / an increase in volume of one (such as a mass) must result in a decrease in volume of others OR an increase in intracranial pressure // cerebral perfusion Pressure CPP = MAP - ICP // (a mass may increase ICP and decrease CPP)
memorize

Review of Histology

Question Answer
Components of Motor end plate (synapse)axon terminal w/ synaptic vesicles, enlarged synaptic cleft, adjacent muscle with junctional folds
three parts of axonhillock (usually near/site of spike initation zone where AP orignates, cylinder, terminal (bouton)
en passant synapselocated along axon hillock
neurons categorized on relationship of cell body and processes(see table) general structure, how many processes, where found, , multipolar, bipolar, (pseudo)unipolar
2 types of astrocytes/locationfibrous (white matter), protoplasmic (gray matter)
Globeoblastoma multiforme disting. histo feature(stage IV astrocytoma) psuedopalisading necrosis
Oligodendroglioma disting. histo featurefried egg nuclei/ chicken wire vessels
memorize

External morphology

Question Answer
frontal lobe, general functionmotor behavior, cognition, affect
parietal lobe, general functionsomesthesis, equilibrium
occipital lobe, general functionvision
temporal lobe, general functionaudition, memory
insular lobe, general functiontaste
limbic lobe, general functionemotions, motivation, olfaction
broca's area- location and fx(see slide 5) frontal lobe (opercular and triangular portions) and part of 3rd frontal gyrus (of DOMINANT hemisphere), SPEECH production
primary motor cortex - location and fxprecentral gyrus (of frontal lobe), to plan and execute MOVEMENTS
primary somatosensory cortex - location and fxPOSTcentral gyrus (of parietal lobe), receiving sensory information
where is the sylvian fissure?aka lateral sulcus, between frontal and occipital lobes (lower)
primary vestibular cortex - location and fxlower parietal lobule, balance/some eye movements
primary visual cortex - location and fxoccipital pole
primary auditory cortex - locationheschl's gyri of TEMPORAL lobe (aka transverse temporal gyri-- borders sylvian fissure)
memorize

more external morphology

Question Answer
wernicke's area - location and fx(see slide 9) temporal lobe (superior temporal gyrus), SPEECH comprehension
primary gustatory cortex - location and fxinsular lobe (Temporal), located within/beneath lateral sulcus, tast & some levels of motivation
primary olfactory cortex - location(basal surface), mostly gyrus rectus of frontal lobe (near olfactory bulbs)
fusiform gyrus - location and functionbasal aspect of temporal lobe, aka occipito-temporal gyrus (lateral to parahippo G), face recognition
parahippocampal gyrus - location and fxbasal aspect of temporal lobe, medial (bordering rhinal fissure, uncus, and brainstem), MEMORY
name 4 parts of corpus callosum (in order)rostrum, genu (turn), body, splenium
primary visual cortext - locationoccipital lobe (spans both sides of calcarine fissure)
limbic lobe, 4 parts (rostral --> caudal)subcallosal/subgenual gyrus, cingulate gyrus, isthmus, parahippocampal (think about relationship to corpus callosum!)
memorize

neurotransmitters, etc.

Question Answer
fx of vesicular transport proteinpackaging NT's @ synapse into vesicles
fx of clathrininvolved in vesicle recapture via endocytosis (after NT release)
vesicles bind to _____ after docking and primingactive zone
what triggers vesicle release into synpaseCa2+
protein that concentrates all monoamines (catecholamines and indolamines) into vesiclesvesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT)
memorize