B & B exam 1

eem8u's version from 2016-09-03 16:01

NT / synthesis / site of action / receptors / function / notes

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4 Column 5
GlutamateeverywhereeverywhereLigand gated AMPA, NMDR (Na) / GPCRsExcitatory; all aspects of brain function; blocked by alcohol; coactivation by Glycine
GABAeverywhereeverywhereligand (CL-) / GPCRInhibitory; regulates level of consciousness; too much = coma
Dopaminesubstantia nigra (midbrain) / ventral tegmental area (midbrain) / arcuate nucleus (hypothalamus)(respectively/three tracts) striatum / Cortical & limbic regions / ant. pit.ONLY GPCR / D2 = GiMODULATORY, NigroStriatal: extrapyramidal motor function / MesoLimbic: emotion, reward, motivation / TuberoInfundibular: inhibits prolactin secretion
NorepiLocus ceruleus (pons)diffuse CNS/PNSONLY GPCRs,Vigilance, attention, stress response, Major NT of Sympathetic NS (NE release from postganglionic sympathetics (act on a, B receptors)
Serotonin (5HT)Dorsal Raphe nucleus (midbrain)diffuse projectionsGPCR's (Gi, Gq, Gs), GHT3 = ligandRegulates stress response, emotional behavior, eating, weight control
Acetylcholinemedial septal nucleus, diagonal band, nucleus basalis of Meynert, brainstem nucleifocused projections to hippocampus / neocrotex / thalamusnicotinic (ligand) and muscarinic (GPCR)ANS / NM junction / regulates sleep-wake / cognition / modulates striatal fx
Histaminetuberomammillarynculeus (hypothalamus)widespreadGPCRsarousal (sedation occurs w/ H1 blocker) / Gastric acid secretion
PeptidesCELL BODY (DENSE CORE vesicles)widespreadGPCR'sirreversible!
lipidsPOSTsynaptic due to Ca2+ influxpresynapticGPCR's CBactivates guanyly cylases --> negative feedback for glutamate
gas (NO)POSTsynaptic due to Ca2+ influxpresynapticdiffusion (no R's)activates guanyly cylases --> increases CGMP (regulates NT release)

Cranial Nerve / Fx / Nucleus (and location) / Exit / Lesion

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4 Column 5
I Olfactorysmell----anosmia, dementia, CSF rhinorrhea
II OpticVision----(will probably learn later), pailledema, atrophy, neuritis, blindness
III Ocularmotormost extraocular muslces/ PS's to pupil constrictoroculomotor complex & edinger-westphal (constriction)MIDBRAI Interpeduncular fossa Course btw PCA/SCA
IV Trochlearsuperior oblique muscle (thinks SO4) - in and downDORSAL @ inferior colliculiexits DORSALLY midbrain/PONS jx--
V TrigeminalFacial and cranial sensation, muscles of mastication, tensor tympani (dampens sound)mid PONS @ floor of 4th ventricle; primary sensory nucleus, spinal nucleus (pain temp from face), mesencephalic (jaw-jerk reflex), motor nucleus (muscles of mastication)exit ventrally - medponstrigeminal neuralgia (compression by LOOPING SCA), loss of afferent corneal reflex, jaw deviation
VI AbducensLateral rectus muscle/eye abductionPONS - dorsal bump (facial colliculus) --> courses mediallyexit anterior (most medial) at caudal PONSmedially directed eye
VII Facialmuscles of facial expresion, salivary gland, sensation from ear, ANTERIOR 2/3 tonguefacial motor nucleus @ midpons, loops dorsal to facial colliculusexits @ pons/medullary jx @ cerebellopontine ANGLE, Lateral to Abducensloss of EFferent corneal reflex, bell's palsy (ipsilateral total facial paralysis)
VIII Vestibulococlearaudition, vestibular sensationcochlear/vestibularmedulla/pons jx @ Cerebellopontine angleschwannoma/acoustic neuronal; conductive hearing loss; sensorineural hearing loss; positiona vertigo

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