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Axilla, Arm & Elbow

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pirikaza's version from 2016-12-11 19:17

axilla

borders of axilla
Question Answer
anterior border of axillaclavipectoral fascia, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, subclavius
posterior border of axillalatissimus dorsi, subscapularis, teres major
medial border of axillaIntercostal muscles, serratus anterior, upper ribs
lateral border of axillaBicipital groove
base of axillaAxilla fascia, skin
apex of axillaClavicle, 1st rib, superior border of scapula
4 important contents of axilla(1) axillary artery, (2) axillary vein, (3) lymphatics, (4) brachial plexus
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axillary vein
Question Answer
axillary vein is formed by union of brachial veins & basilic vein
axillary vein is formed (distally) at the border ofinferior border of teres major
axillary vein drains intosubclavian vein
all blood from hands drains intodorsal venous network (arch)
dorsal venous network of hand drains what vessels?superficial & deep venous palmar arches
the dorsal venous network drains medially intobasilic vein (pinkie side)
the dorsal venous network drains laterally intocephalic vein (thumb side)
basilic vein drains into origin of axillary vein
what communicates between the cephalic & basilic veins? where?median cubital vein, at cubital fossa
cephalic vein drains intotermination of axillary vein
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axillary artery
Question Answer
course of heart--> axillary artery (R)aorta --> brachiocephalic a. --> subclavian a. --> axillary a.
course of heart--> axillary artery (L)aorta --> subclavian a. --> axillary a.
the axillary artery is continuous with and between _______ & ________subclavian --> axillary --> brachial
proximal border of axillary arterylateral border of 1st rib
distal border of axillary arteryinferior border of teres major
axillary artery is partitioned relative to pectoralis minor muscle
proximal border of 1st part of axillary arterylateral border of 1st rib
distal border of 1st part of axillary arterymedial border of pec minor
proximal border of 2nd part of axillary arterymedial border of pec minor
distal border of 2nd part of axillary arterylateral border of pec minor
proximal border of 3rd part of axillary arterylateral border of pec minor
distal border of 3rd part of axillary arteryinferior border of teres major
branch(es) off axillary I(1) superior thoracic artery
branch(es) off axillary II(1) thoracoacromial trunk & (2) lateral thoracic artery
branch(es) off axillary III(1) subscapular artery, (2) anterior humeral circumflex, (3) posterior humeral circumflex
axillary artery provides majority of blood supply to shoulder, but ___________ contributesbranches of subclavian a.
what trunk (& its branches) of the subclavian artery contributes to supply of shoulder?thyrocervical trunk --> transverse cervical a. & suprascapular a.
dorsal scapular artery is a branch of __________, which branches off __________ from __________transverse cervical artery <-- thyrocervical trunk <-- subclavian artery
circumflex scapular artery is a branch of ________, which branches off __________subscapular artery <-- axillary III
what 3 arteries supply the posterior scapula?(subclav. -> thyrocerv. ->) suprascapular,
(subclav. -> thyrocerv. -> transverse cerv. ->) dorsal scapular artery,
(axillary III -> subscap. ->) circumflex scapular artery
where do subclavian & axillary arteries anastomose?posterior scapula
scapular anastomosis connects:suprascapular, dorsal scapular, circumflex scapular
where does the axillary artery become the brachial artery?inferior border of teres major
deep artery of the armbrachial profunda artery
where does the brachial artery bifurcate?at the elbow
what does the brachial artery bifurcate into?radial & ulnar arteries
which artery branches into ant & post interosseous arteries?ulnar
major branch from brachial arterybrachial profunda artery
which arteries supply the forearm?anterior & posterior interosseous arteries
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elbow

articulations & supporting structures
Question Answer
2 articular surfaces of humerus at elbowcapitulum (R) & trochlea (U)
trochleapart of humerus that articulates with ulna
capitulumpart of humerus that articulates with radius
4 articulations at elbow(1) humeroulnar, (2) humeroradial, (3) proximal radioulnar, (4) distal radioulnar
which articulation is separate from the others & why?distal radioulnar - not in the elbow complex
what type of joint is the humeroulnar?hinge synovial
movements at the humeroulnar jointflexion/extension
the (trochlea/capitiulum) forms a deeper surface, so the (HR/HU) joint is a simple hingetrochlea, humeroulnar
what type of joint is the humeroradial?modified hinge synovial
movements at the humeroradial jointflexion/extension & supination/pronation
what type of joint is the proximal radioulnar?pivot
movements at the proximal radioulnarsupination/pronation
what type of joint is the distal radioulnar?pivot
movements at the radioulnar jointsupination/pronation
which 3 articulations share a joint capsule?HU (humeroulnar), HR (humeroradial), PRU (proximal radioulnar)
3 supporting structures in the elbow region(1) annular ligament, (2) medial collateral ligament, (3) lateral collateral ligament
which joint does not contribute to sup/pronhumeroulnar
function of the annular ligamentholds head of radius against ulna
the annular ligament protects againstdistal dislocation of the radius (nursemaid's elbow)
the annular ligament forms 4/5 of a circle. what forms the remainder?radial notch of the ulna
where does the annular ligament start & endmargin of radial notch of ulna --> around neck of radius --> other margin of radial notch on ulna
Monteggia fracturefracture of proximal ulna & dislocation of radius
dislocation of the radius is often associated with forearm fracture (Monteggia fracture)
the lateral collateral ligament prevents againstvarus deviation of the forearm
the medial collateral ligament prevents againstvalgus deviation of the forearm
which collateral ligament blends with the annular ligament?lateral collateral
connections of the medial collateral ligamentmedial epicondyle of humerus --> coronoid process & olecranon process
radial collateral ligament = lateral collateral ligament
ulnar collateral ligament = medial collateral ligament
connections of the lateral collateral litamentlateral epicondyle of humerus --> annular ligament
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arthrokinematics
Question Answer
in (flex/extension), the olecranon process is in close proximity to the distal humerus extension
in (flex/extension), the olecranon process is farther away from the humerusflexion
the elbow joint is more stable in (flex/extension)extension
(ulna/radius) has a C-shaped proximal endulna
(ulna/radius) has a roller-ball shaped proximal endradius
during supination, what's happening in the joint?radial head pins on capitulum
supination involves what joints?humeroradial, proximal radioulnar, distal radioulnar
during supination, what is the arrangement of the radius & ulna?parallel
when are the radius & ulna parallel?supination
during pronation, what is the arrangement of the radius & ulna?radius rotates overtop ulna
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muscles acting on the elbow
Question Answer
muscles of the anterior compartment of the armbiceps brachii, brachialis
muscles of the posterior compartment of the armtriceps brachi, anconeus, brachioradialis
which muscle is difficult to categorize as ant/posterior & why?brachioradialis originates in post compartment, but during development the hand rotates, so action is similar to ant compartment
what nerve supplies muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm?musculocutaneous
what nerve supplies muscles of the posterior compartment of the arm?radial nerve
2 heads of bicepsshort & long
the short head of the biceps is (med/lat) to the long headmedial
origin of the biceps brachii (short head)coracoid process of scapula
origin of the biceps brachii (long head)supraglenoid tubercle of scapula (tendon passes over intertubercular groove of humerus)
insertion of biceps brachiiradius via bicipital tendon
action of the biceps brachiiflexes forearm
innervation of biceps brachiimusculocutaneous nerve
origin of brachialisdistal anterior humerus
insertion of brachialiscoronoid process of ulna
action of brachialisflexes forearm
innervation of brachialismusculocutaneous
the brachialis is (deep/superficial) to bicepsdeep
3 heads of tricepslong, lateral & medial
which is the deepest head of the triceps?medial
origin of triceps brachii (long head)infraglenoid tubercle
origin of triceps brachii (lateral head)posterior superior humerus
origin of triceps brachii (medial head)posterior inferior humerus
insertion of triceps brachiiolecranon of ulna
action of triceps brachiiextend elbow
innervation of triceps brachiiradial nerve
origin of anconeuslateral epicondyle of humerus
insertion of anconeusolecranon of ulna
action of anconeusextend forearm
innervation of anconusradial nerve
only flexor innervated by radial nervebrachioradialis
origin of brachioradialislateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
insertion of brachioradialislateral distal radius
action of brachialisflexes elbow
innervation of brachialisradial nerve
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muscles acting on radioulnar joints
Question Answer
2 supinators supinator & biceps brachii
2 pronatorspronator teres & pronator quadratus
origin of supinatorlateral epicondyle of humerus, supinator fossa, crest of ulna
insertion of supinatorlateral, posterior, & anterior surface of radius
action of supinatorsupinates forearm
innervation of supinatordeep branch of radial nerve
what makes the biceps a supinator?its attachment to the radius
which pronator is more proximal?pronator teres
which pronator has 2 heads?pronator teres
which pronator does not also flex forearm?pronator quadratus
origin of pronator terescoronoid process AND medial epicondyle
insertion of pronator tereslateral radius
action of pronator terespronation & flexion of forearm
origin of pronator quadratusdistal anterior ulna
insertion of pronator quadratusdistal anterior radius
action of pronator quadratuspronates forearm
innervation of pronator quadratusanterior interosseous nerve
the anterior interosseous nerve is a branch of median nerve
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