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Avian

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isabellepjk's version from 2017-04-26 14:33

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Question Answer
how many occipital condyles in a bird?1
word for increasing gape of bird?craniokinesis
how is craniokinesis done? (bone/joint/direction?) quadrate bone rotates when mouth opening, pushes upper beak dorsally at CRANIOFACIAL HINGE
unique eye structure in skull of owls?scleral ossicles form sclerotic ring (tube like structure)
what is the weak point of a birds back?the few thoracic verts that arent fused-- "kinky back"/kyphosis
what is an uncinate process of a rib?which can be separate bones or projections from ribs. An uncinate process on a rib overlaps the rib posterior to it, providing bracing to the rib cage.
digit 1 of bird is...(digit 2? 3?)alula (claw in some)... (2= major. 3=minor)
where do primary flight feathers attach? secondary?1*= carpometacarpus and digits. 2*= antebrachium
word for what you do to prevent flight? precaution?pinioning. MUST DO BOTH SIDES
why do ducks waddle?birds have an antitrochanter which prevents abduction
how would you be able to tell which digit is which in the pelvic limb?each digit has one more phalanx than its number (digits 1-4)
what is the spur?tarsometatarus-- calcaris process (calcar) modified epidermal projection
how does the perching mechanism work?when its legs are flexed, tarsus flexed, tightens //DDF// tendon, flexes digits, then bird can sleep bc its legs are locked up
what is the one thing all birds have in common?feathers!
what ARE feathers? fxns of feathers?tubular extensions of skin. Fxn: insulation, flight, nest building material, courtship/aggression displays
where do we think birds came from (evolutionarily)?small feathered dinosaurs.
3 main types of feathers?contour(cover body of adult, wings, tail), plumules(dont interlock no rigid rachus), filoplumes(hair-like, "tufted bristles")
how is stealth flying done?soft edge of the feathers
flight feathers of the wing are? of the tail?remiges. retrices. (sounds like "gimmiethese" , grab with wings)
what is the word for the quill of the feather? what are the names of the two holes in it? (what is the other part above the quill?)Calamus. Distal (sup.) umbilicus. Proximal (inf) umbilicus. (Rachis) [you can eat calamari with a calamus]
what is apteriya? why do we care?poorly feathered areas. Surgical incisions should be made here.
what is pterylae?the feather tracts
how do birds replace their feathers?they molt. usually 1x a year.
where are new feathers produced?in a feather follicle (inverted tube of skin)
what is a brooding patch?area on ventral abdomen where feathers might be plucked to allow for better heat xchange to eggs.
special breeds of chicken have been bred to be sexed by their feathers. what is the technique?Females coverts are shorter than their primary flight feathers. Male- coverts long as or longer than filghts
where do birds store fat?in their thin skin which is loosely attached in most areas.
7 fleshy appendages of head?Comb, waddles, earlobes, ricti (fleshy area around mouth), snood (part that hangs from beak), dewlap (skin fold at neck area), caruncles (cover entire head/neck)
what is the rhamphotheca? noteable portion of it?(BEAK) heavily keratinized sheath that covers the jaws. it grows continuously and might need to be trimmed. cutting edge is "tomia"
rule for debeaking?no more than 1/3 of upper beak (from tip to nares)
2 parts of rhamphotheca in waterfowl? purpose?LAMELLAE-- ridges-- filter food. NAIL (maxillary and mandibular)
what is a cere?waxy structure covering base of bill. can be used to sex certain species.
name for the preening gland? purpose?uropygial gland (uropygial papillae) with two paired glands/ducts, sebaceous secretion. help in waterproofing!
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