Avian Hematology

pbhati17's version from 2017-02-09 14:58

Section 1

Question Answer
What makes the avian vein moreThe avian vein is more mobile and less subQ
What equipment is necessary for taking avian blood?a 36g needle, a 3cc syringe, an EDTA tube or Lithium hep in corvidae, currasows, crowned cranes, hornbills, brush turkeys, ostritches
How much blood can I take1% of BW
What are the different venipuncture sites?Occipital sinus, jugular v, Medial metatarsal v., basilic v., toenail clip
When would you utilize the occipital sinus?For CSF collection, drainage o venous sinuses of cranial cavity, and for euthanasia
Where is the occipital sinus located?@Foramen magnum
Why is the jugular vein the vein of choice?It's good for small px
What are some structurers assoc w/ jugular v.?Esophagus, trachea, cervicocephalic airsac, common carotid
When would you use the medial metatasrsal v?For catheter placement, blood sampling
What are some disadvantages of the medial metatarsal v.?It likes to bleed- need to place a bandage after
What is another name for the Basilic v?Deep ulnar v. or wing v.
When is the basilic v. indicated?IV catheter(esp large birds), IV injx, blood sampling
What are some advantages of the basilic v.?There's major venous return for the wing
What are some disadvantages of the Basilic v.?It collapses easily
What else can you use the Basilic v. for?To check for dehydration/shock via turgidity
What are some disadvantages of the toenail clip?VERY PAINFUL, contract site, diffx hemostasis

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the range for total leukocyte count in birds?Between 5 and 15,000 (up to 20,000 for stress leukogram)
If the leukocyte count is greater than 30,000 what should you suspect?Chlamydiophylosis, Aspergillosis, Mycobacteriosis
Which species tend to have a lower total leukocyte/heterophil count and small RBC size?Budgies, lovebirds, and canaries
Which species have low heterophil:lymphocyte ratioCanaries/amazons
In which species are eosinopenia, heteropenia a normal finding?Raptors

Section 3

Question Answer
What does the avian erythrocyte look like?Nucleated with a red cytoplasm
What are some abnormalities that can occur w/ avian erythrocytes?Polycythemia, Anemia
When does the PCV in birds tend to be higher?Due to higher O2 saturation at higher altitudes
What are some causes of polycythemia?dehydration- check TP or can be secondary to lung dz
What does the avian thrombocyte look likenucleated w/ a blue cytoplasm
What are some abnormalities with thrombocytesThrombocytopenia (<20,000)
What are some CS of thrombocytopenia?Periorbital swelling, petechiation, circulating immature thrombocytes
What avian cell is easy to confuse w/ lymphocytes?Avian thrombocytes
What does the avian heterophil look like?granules, orange to pink rods, uneven pink to blue cytoplasm and a MULTILOBULATED NUCLEUS
Abnormalities w/ heterophil?Left shift, Heterophilia, Heteropenia,Toxic heterophils
When would you see toxic heterophils?basophilic granules, nuclear hypersegmentation; it could be indicative of a bacterial,, fungal, or viral infxn
Which cell is the most numerous inflammatory cell in most species?the avian heterophil
What does the avian eosinophil look like?it's nonlobulated nucleus and it's rare
In which species are eosinophils more common?In raptors, waterfowl
Is the eosinophil a reliable indx of allergies, parasitism in birds?No
What does the avian basophil look like?Metachromic with a bilobed nucleus
Common abnormalities with the basophilBasophilia
What can basophilia be indx of?Chronic resp dz caused by Chalmydiophylosis, can also be indx of severe stress
More basophils in what age range? what species?Neonates, conures, spectacled amazon parrot
What does the avian monocyte look like?nonlobulated, bean shaped nucleus, inclusions, LARGeST AVIAN INFLAMMATORY CELL
Abnormalities of the monocytesStress monocytosis(uncommon) so more likely an ill px(Chlamydiophylosis, chronic granulomatous, histiocytic inflammx)
If subtle monocyte elevation then what is suspected?bacterial infx
What does the avian lymphocyte look like?similar to thrombocyte but thin rim blue cytoplasm
Which is the second most common inflamm cellthe lymphocyte
abnormalities of the avian lymphocyteReactive lymphocyte(antigenic stim), lymphocytosis, lymphopenia(stress), leukemia
Which species are lymphocytic?amazons, canaries, owls

Section 4

Question Answer
Do we need to tx Avian hemoparasites?They don't cause clinical illness; don't need to tx unless Plasmodium in some species
What are some different types of hemoparasitesHemoproteus, Plasmodium, Microfilaria, leucocytozoon,atoxoplasma, trypanocksoma
What are some CS of hemoproteusCS are rare but may include hemolytic anemia, anorexia, depression
Who are the host/vector of Hemoproteus?culicoides,midges and hippoboscid flies
Hemoproteus is uncommon in...psittacines unless wild caught
Hemoproteus is pathogenic in,,,quail, pigeons
What is the most common blood parasite in passerine of USA,AUHemoproteus
What is Plasmodium known as?Avian malaria
CS of PlasmoidumHemolytic anemia, vomx, anorexia, hemoglobinuria, dyspnea, lymphocytosis
Host/vector for PlasmodiumMosquito, culex, aedes
What species is Plasmodium common in Canaries, small pigeons, poultry, penguins, waterfowl, mynahs, falcons, flamingos
How do you diagx Plasmodium?Trophozoite form in erythrocytes, necropsy findings (spleno/hepatomegaly, Splenic infarcts, hge)
Who is most likely to get microfilaria and are there CS?Wild caught cockatoos/macaws and most likely to just have a subclinx infx
How do you diagx microfilaria?Found in blood smear of wild caught birds, no tx necessary
Leucocytozoon is fatal in who?Young psittacines- it causes splenomegaly, pericardial effusion, hepatomegaly, and pulm congx
Leucocytozoon causes what in canaries?acute fatal hepatic necrosis
Leucocytozoon causes what in crested oropendolas?fatal hemorrhagic dz
Leucocytozoon causes what in young anseriformes, galliformes, raptors?dehydration, anorexia, depression, hemoglobinuria, hemolytic anemia
Who is the vector for leucocytozoon?Simulid blackflies
What species is most likely to get leucocytozoonwild passerines
Diagx leucocytozoongrossly distorts host cell,
tx for leucocytozoonno effx tx
Atoxoplasma is a seriously fatal infx in who?Passerines
Diagx of Atoxoplasmaindent luekocyte nucleus, reddish ICIB
Who is the host for trypanosomaSimulid blackflies, mosquite(Aedes aegyptie), culicoids midges, tabanids, reduvid bugs, extracellular parasite
Who is Trypanosoma common in ? Passerines, Galliformes, waterfowl, pigeon
What is the tx for Trypanosoma?there's low mortality so tx not necc