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Avian fluid therapy and Antibiotics

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pbhati17's version from 2017-02-09 21:37

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the ideal fluid type based on?Acid/base + electrolyte status
What are some raptor maladiestrauma, emaciation, hypothermia, renal function
Metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia could benefit from...fluid therapy
When would you use Fe dextran as fluid therapy?Blood loss, anemia, NOT septicemia
When would you use Hetastarch?For Chronic hypoproteinemia
When would you ue oxyglobinFor Anemia
If bird is anemic what should you consider?Hemorrhage, hemolysis, production issue(trauma, parasitism, toicity, chronic dz)
If PCV<20% then what should you consider?Blood transfusion; unknown blood types so try blood from same species
What are the clinical signs of a transfusion reactionHemolysis, Urticaria, Anaphylaxis, Vomx, Vol overload
How would you tx a transfusion rxn?Antihistamines, Steroids, Epi
Where would you collect blood from in the donor- how much?Can safely take 10% of the animal's BW, collect from the medial metatarsal v. jugular, bronchial and make sure to give heparin or sodium cirate acid
How do you administer blood to the recipient?Can admin 10-20% of recip BW in blood==> give 1-2ml/100g BW; give IV/IO or CRI as 2mls per min or boluses every 2-4 hours
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Section 2

Question Answer
What are some signs a bird is in pain?Instinctual stoicism, escape rxn, vocalization, heart rate, absence of normal behavior, wing clamp
What receptors does Butorphanol work on and why is this important?Works on K and Mu rec; important since birds have more K rec
What is the indx to use Butorphanol?Post op pain
What types of NSAIDs can be used in birds?Carprofen, Ibuprofen, Banamine
What are some indx for NSAIDs?Pain control, arthritis in waterfowl
Contraindx / side effx of NSAIDsRenal tox, endotox
What are some indications for DMSO?Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory; used for cloacal prolapse, bumblefoot , papillomatosis
How long do corticosteroids last?Short-acting
What are some indx for corticosteroids?Shock, toxicity, nervous system comp
What is important to know about cortcosteroids in birds?Don't use them topically
What sedatives do we use in birds?Diazepam and Midazolam
Which sedative i ued as a premed/sedative in fractious birdsDiazepam
Which sedative is used in Canadian GeeseMidazolam
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Section 3

Question Answer
What are some indications for FluoroquinoloneG-:Psuedo, Salmonella, Enterobacter, Pasteurella, Chlamydiophyla, G+: Mycoplasma
What are some - of Fluros?You want to avoid iving more than one IM ingx and it can cause seizures in some species
What is the indx for Tetracycline?G+ ycoplasma
What are some contrindx of tetracyclines?Chelates Ca2+ and Ca2+ in growing birds
What are aminoglycosides indicated for?Pseudomonas
What are some contraindx of Aminoglycosides?kidney tox, otic tox, NM blockage, PU/PD
What are sulfas indx for?Enterobacteriae/Coccidia
What are some signs of toxicity w/ Sulfas?Renal toxicity, GI upset, regurge,skin rxn
How do you admin Sulfas?Oral/IM, cream
What are the indx for Metronidazole?It's an antiflagellate used to tx Giardia, Trichomonas, and obligate anaerobes
What are some indx of toxicity of metronidazole?Neuro signs
How do you admin metronidazole?oral susp, IV
How do coccidiostats work?they're antagonists of PABA and inhibit folat synthesis
What are some types of toxicity that Coccidiostats can cause?Nephrotoxicity
What are some drugs that are Coccidiostats?Sulphonamides, Ampralium, Clazuril, Diclazuril, Toltrazuril, Pyremethanine
What antifungals do you use for yeast?Nystatin, azoles, amphoteracin, Flucytosin, Gentalan violet
What antifungals do you use for Aspergillus?Ampho B, Azoles
What is ivermectin used for?Nematodes, External parasites, microfiliaria
What is Fenbendazole used for?Nematodes/Trematodes
What is Praziquantel+ Pyrantel pamoate used for?Cestodes
What are some anticonvulsants used in birds?Valium, Phenobarb
What do you do to tx a bird intoxicated by carbaates?Atropine/benadryl
What is chelation therapy?When is it used?It's used to absorb toxins; CaEDTA, D-penicillamine, DMSA
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