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Attitude and behavior change

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icer215's version from 2016-08-24 22:31

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Observational learningA process of learning a new behavior or gaining information by observing others. Albert Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment illustrated observational learning
Process of observation learning goesAttention, Retention/memory, Initiation/motor, Motivation
AttentionFirst, one pays attention to what is going on around them, For example, children (observers) watch an adult being acting violently to Bobo doll, The characteristic of observer’s behavior depends on the situation
Retention/memoryThe information about what one has observed is recognized and remembered during this process
Initiation/motorFrom the previous steps, one can physically and/or intellectually reproduce the same behavior that they’ve seen and remember. For example, when children is put in the same environment with Bobo dolls, they reproduce the same violent behavior towards the dolls as they remember what they’ve observed previously
MotivationSome behaviors/learning process does not occur without motivation (external reinforcement)
Modeling is a crucial factor because observation learning can positively or negatively influence people depending on what observers perceive around them. Children watching others stealing toys and hitting friends may reproduce the same act. Children watching others being respectful and sharing their toys may also share toys with others
Mirror neuronsFound in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex
Mirror neurons Fires whenOne is performing an action & one is observing someone else performing a certain action. One is experiencing an emotion & one is observing others experiencing the same emotion. e.g. Involved in empathy. When you see someone crying, you feel similar sadness (one may cry as well)
Significantly involved in motor processesImitative learning
Imitative learningMonkey in the picture below imitates human’s actions
Prosocial effectsPositive consequences. Affected by the family, neighborhood, TV, and other media. TV shows containing educational content such as how HIV/AIDS can be prevented, family planning works, and how to be environment friendly can inspire positive behaviors in people. Also observing how one’s parents volunteer at the hospital and help others in need can affect the children to reproduce such behavior as they grow up
Antisocial effectsNegative consequences. Affected by the family, neighborhood, TV, and other media
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Psychologist Craig Anderson and Karen Dill’s studies showed thatPlaying violent video games increases more aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors than those who don’t play those games
Psychologist Rebecca Collins and her colleagues’ studies on teens watching TV containing lots of sexual content showed thatThere is twice as much chance for those teens to start having sex within the next year than those who not watch TV with sexual contents
Elaboration Likelihood ModelDescribes how attitudes are shaped, formed, and changed through persuasion. Information processing routes to persuasion (e.g., central and peripheral route processing)
Social Cognitive TheoryA model proposed by Albert Bandura. Emphasizes on how social influences, personal factors, and behaviors interact with each other
Reciprocal determinism consists ofEnvironmental factors (social), Personal factors (cognitive), Behaviors
Environmental factors (social)Role models, Instruction, Reinforcement ,Feedback
Personal factors (cognitive)Goals, Sense of efficacy/outcome expectations, Attribution, Process of self regulation
BehaviorsGoal progress, Motivation, Attention, Retention, Learning
Behavioral changeCompliance
ComplianceChanging behavior due to consequences. For example, one decides to study during holidays to do well on the MCAT (to avoid failing and for better social outcomes)
Characteristics of the message and targetCredibility of the source, Expertise, Trustworthiness, Attractiveness, Informational content
InternalizationBeliefs, Reasoning, Past experiences, Emotions
Social factorsDemographics, Personality traits, Preferences, Role models
Role modelsAdmiration (motivation) can change one’s attitude/beliefs/behaviors
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HabituationDecrease in response to a stimulus due to repeated presentation of that stimulus.
Infants habituate a visual stimulusThe longer infants are exposed to a stimulus, the less time they will spend time looking at it
The rat habituatethe sound stimulus
First sound stimulus ➙ rat is surprised and jumped ➙ after repeated sound stimulus ➙ rat is no longer surprised from the sound
DishabituationWhen a decreased response from habituation restores back to original response (increased response) as if its new stimulus. Result of presenting stronger/extraneous stimulus
The rat is dishabituatedRat is no longer surprised from the sound stimulus ➙ stronger sound stimulus is presented ➙ rat is surprised and jumped ➙ original sound stimulus is presented ➙ rat is surprised and jumped like when the original sound stimulus was given
Classical conditioningDiscovered by Ivan Pavlov, also known as Pavlovian conditioning. Process of learning. Involves associating an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus
Classical conditioning Process involvesNeutral stimuli (NS), Conditioned stimuli (CS), Unconditioned stimuli (UCS)
Neutral stimuli (NS)Stimulus that triggers no response. For example, ringing a bell ➙ a dog does not respond
Conditioned stimuli (CS)Stimulus that is initially neutral stimulus, but once conditioned it produces conditioned response (CR). For example, ringing a bell ➙ no response initially, however once conditioned ➙ triggers a response in a dog to drool (CR)
Unconditioned stimuli (UCS)Stimulus that is not affected by conditioning. For example, the dog food ➙ triggers a dog to drool no matter what (UCR, unconditioned reponse)
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Classical Conditioning ProcessesAcquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous recovery, Generalization, Discrimination
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Acquisition :Process of pairing conditioned stimuli (US) and unconditioned stimuli (UCS) together
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ExtinctionProcess of presenting only the conditioned stimuli repeatedly (in absence of unconditioned stimuli) to terminate the pairing of CS and UCS
Spontaneous recoveryDescribes the reappearance of the conditioned response (CR) after a certain time
GeneralizationDescribes that when a particular CS is associated with a CR then different stimulus can cause the same CR as well
DiscriminationDescribes that when stimulus (A) is associated with CR (A) then stimulus (B) will either associate with another CR (B) or none at all
Operant conditioningA process of behavior learning also known as instrumental conditioning (Different from classical conditioning)
A method of modifying behavior (an operant) by its consequencesTo get rewards and To avoid punishments
ShapingProcess of reinforcing behavior gradually to target specific behaviors. For example, to train a dog to do a trick of turn in circle, one rewards the dog when he/she turns half way then reward when the dog turns a little bit more, and so on
ExtinctionDue to lack of consequences following a behavior, a conditioned response is no longer present
Pairing of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulusbecomes weakened and eventually disappears
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ReinforcementProcess of increasing the chance of an individual to perform a certain behavior
Types of reinforcement includePositive, Negative, Primary, Conditional
PositiveAddition of a positive consequences or incentive ➙ increases a behavior as a result. For example, money works as a positive reinforcement for workers to work hard in the company
NegativeRemoval of unlikable consequences ➙ increases a behavior as a result. For example, people put on sunscreen at the beach to avoid getting sunburned. Different from punishment
PrimaryNatural reinforcer that increases the chance of an individual to perform a behavior. For example, dog food is a primary reinforcer for the dog to respond
ConditionalAlso known as secondary reinforce. Certain object or method that is conditioned to increase a behavior. For example, associating whistling with providing food to a dog works as a conational reinforcer
PunishmentPositive, Negative, Primary, Conditional
PositiveAddition of a positive consequences or incentive ➙ increases a behavior as a result. For example, money works as a positive reinforcement for workers to work hard in the company
NegativeRemoval of unlikable consequences ➙ increases a behavior as a result. For example, people put on sunscreen at the beach to avoid getting sunburned. Different from punishment
PrimaryNatural reinforcer that increases the chance of an individual to perform a behavior. For example, dog food is a primary reinforcer for the dog to respond
ConditionalAlso known as secondary reinforce. Certain object or method that is conditioned to increase a behavior. For example, associating whistling with providing food to a dog works as a conational reinforcer
Reinforcement schedulesThe rate of acquiring desired behavior in time
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Two factors affecting reinforcement schedulesa ratio or an interval
Variable ratio (VR)Average number of performances: Varying number of behavior performed/rewards given. Fastest response rate
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Fixed ratio (FR)
Specific number of behavior performed
Continuous reinforcement is FR schedule – reward is given every time behavior is performed
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Variable interval (VI)Reinforce in a varying interval of time – reward given at different times
Fixed interval (FI)Reinforce in a given period of time – reward given at the first instance of a behavior. There is no response when no reward is given
Escape learningThe behavior is performed to decrease the unpleasantness of something that already exists (or has happened)
An example of escape learningYou suddenly get a headache. In order to “escape” the pain and unpleasantness that the headache is causing, you take some Advil
Avoidance learningThe behavior is performed to prevent the unpleasantness of something that has yet to happen
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An example of avoidance learningYou are studying hard for a midterm in order to “avoid” the consequences of failing and receiving a bad grade (unpleasant feelings)
Associative learningA process of learning by associating or creating a pair between two stimuli or behavior and a response
Classical and operant conditioningis two kinds of associative learning
Cognitive process that affect associative learning includesLatent learning. Spontaneous learning without any reward
Problem-solvingProcess of learning by first observing the situation then deciding what kind of suitable action to take
InstinctsGenetically programmed cognitive process. Learning that coincide with natural behavior produce better result than working against one’s natural instincts
Biological Factors that Affect Associative LearningInnate behaviors are developmentally fixed
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Innate behaviors are developmentally fixedInnate behaviors
Innate behaviorsFixed developmentally by the nervous system. Can be divided into simple and complex behaviors
Simple includes reflexes, taxis, and kinesisA given stimulus ➙ triggers a given response. When you touch a hot pot ➙ you pull your hand away
Complex includes fixed action patterns, migration, and circadian rhythmFixed action patterns ➙ unchangeable behavior
Learned behaviors are modified based on experiencesExperiences in life modify learned behaviors. Practice can improve certain behaviors
Development of learned behaviorsWe’ve just learned about habituation, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning, which are all learned behaviors (refer back to previous lessons if you want to refresh your mind)
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