Atmosphere Test - AP Environmental Science

tirajuzu's version from 2015-11-08 20:36

Section 1

Question Answer
Nitrogen %78%
Oxygen %21%
Argon %0.93%
Carbon Dioxide %0.04%
troposphere1st level: 0-10 miles high. Where weather happens, contains 75% of the mass of the atmosphere
stratosphere2nd level: 10-30 miles high. Not much oxygen, but lots of ozone
mesosphere3rd level: 30-50 miles high
thermospherefinal level: 50+ miles high
Thermal Inversion1. Sun rays hit the ground, and heat the air. 2. Hot air rises, cold air comes down to maintain temperature balance. Thus: hot, light air sits on top of cold, heavy air.
Thermal Inversion Places1: Donora, PA: Industrial town. 2: London, England: Coal burning/ steel mills. Resulted in first enviro legislation, knowledge of air pollution
(stratospheric) Ozone-Shields us from UV rays. Is prominent in the poles because ice crystals act as catalysts that break down ozone (but they don't cause it)
Ozone chemical FormulasO2 ----UV Rays------> O + O. O + O2 ---> O3
photochemical OzoneCreated by humans. Cars produce Nitric Oxide. NO2 ---UV Rays----> NO + O, and, again O results in more O3 (ozone)

Section 2

Question Answer
photochemical smogNO2, O3, PANs
industrial smogSPMs, SO2 (oil/coal), H2SO4
Sick Building SyndromeFormaldehyde(carpets curtains, clothing, plywood), Radon(from decomp of Uranium-238. Results in lung cancer), asbestos (carcinogen that can't leave lungs. Used in brake linings) SPMs (e.g., smoke)
Global WarmingTrue: High temp increase rate NEVER seen before. GW is False: The sun causes warming
Greenhouse gasesCarbon Dioxide, Methane (from rice, decomp of anaerobic bacteria, esp. termites), CFCs, N2O (from manure used in organic fertilizer), water vapor, ozone
greenhouse gas strongnessCO2: 1x CO2. Methane: 20x. N2O: 300x. CFC's: 10,000
If current trends continue century, then, 1. temp will increase 10 degrees. 2. All glaciers melted. 3. polar caps 70% gone. 4. 250 ft sea rise. 5. weather pattern disruption

Section 3

Question Answer
Normal rain pH/ formula5.6/ H2O + CO2 --> H2CO3
NOx acid rain formulasNO + O2 --> NO2. NO2 + H2O --> HNO3 + NO
SOx acid rain formulasSO(1 or 2) + O2 --> SO(2 or 3). SOx + H2O --> H2SO4
acid rain problems (list)1. Cation exchange- the acid will replace nutrient cations. 2. Lowering pH leads to aluminum toxicity. 3. Acid rain destroys the waxy coating of leaves and desicates them. 4. Bad for seeds. 5. Acid corrodes metals. 6. respiratory illness (NOx/SOx in the lungs become acid). 7. Aquatic organisms suffer
Calcium Carbonate amount of CaCO4? dtermines alkalinity (acid neutralizing capacity). Broken down, calcium carbonate becomes CO3-, which can combine with H+ ions
Clean Air Act (what is being regulated?)Establishes "NAAQS -or- National Ambient Air Quality Standards." Establishes limits for 6 atmospheric pollutants: Ozone, SOx, NOx, SPMs, CO, Lead. Also, CO2 is now being regulated
Kyoto ProtocolAgreement to reduce CO2 levels below 1990 levels. Successful, but goal not yet achieved.
Montreal ProtocolAgreement to ban CFCs and other oxygen-depleting chemicals
Ways to eliminate CO21. Switchgrass (fast growing plant, absorbs lots of CO2), 2. Pump CO2 into abandoned oil fields

Section 4

Question Answer
Heat/NOxSource: N2 + O2 (two prominent gases) ----heat----> NOx. Problem: NO + H2O --> H2NO3 Nitric Acid (Photochemical Acid)
Sulfur/SOxSource: sulfur from fossil fuels. problem: SO2 + water --> sulfuric acid: kills trees, people. Solution: 1. Mix w/ calcium carbonite, 2. use scrubbers at chimneys
CO2duh:::: source: burning. problem: global warming. solution: none
COsource: CARS; burning Carbon in a closed area w/ little oxygen. Prob: not healthy. Solution: cars have catalytic converters now (combines CO and O2 into CO2). A chrmical MTBE emits oxygen to do this (required by EPA)
SPM (suspended particulate matter)source: burning carbon substances. Prob: our lungs can't filter smoke. Solution: 1. filters/bags, 2. electrostatic precipitators
VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) source: organic stuff; fossils fuels, gas, alcohol. prob: photochemical smog. solution: speshul gas pumps suck up this gas
CFCs (Chloroflorocarbons) source: old refrigerator units. prob: UV rays break it into Chlorine and Fluorine, which destroys ozone and Cl2O, which destroys more ozone. solution: no CFCs
Types of pollutantsheat(NOx), sulfur(SOx), CO2, CO, SPM, VOCs, CFCs