Astronomy Midterm #2

malanee1134's version from 2016-02-08 07:20

Section 1

Question Answer
Astronomical Unit (AU)distance from the center of the earth to the center of the sun.
ellipseoval shape made by the paths of the planets
light yeardistance equivalent to the distance that light travels in one year
photonparticle representing a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation
wavelengthdistance between successive crests of a wave
frequencyhow often the crest of a wave occurs
ROYGBIVred, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
electromagnetic spectrumrange of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends
continuous spectrumproduced by a hot glowing solid, dense gas, or liquid
emission spectrumproduced by a warm glowing, low density gas (bright line)
absorption spectrumspectrum of electromagnetic radiation transmitted through a substance, showing dark lines or bands due to absorption of specific wavelengths
doppler effectchange in location seen in the spectral lines of a moving object
redshiftlight emitted from an object moving away from us will have its wavelength lengthened
blueshiftlight emitted from an object moving towards us will have its wavelength shortened
radial velocityvelocity of a star or other body along the line of sight of an observer
tangential velocitylinear speed of something moving along a circular path

Section 2

Question Answer
refractoruses lenses to gather and focus light
chromatic aberrationcolor deviation
reflectoruses mirrors to gather, reflect, and focus light (primary mirror determines the size of the telescope)
Newtonianreflecting telescope
catadiopticuses lenses and mirrors (schmidt-cassegrain telescope)
light pollutionpollution in the atmosphere that makes it difficult to see stars
adaptive opticsreduces effects of turbulence
atmospheric absorptionEarth's atmosphere absorbs most types of light- only visible and radio light make it to the ground
radio telescopescollects radio waves that pass through the atmosphere (can be used during the day)
interferometryany measuring instrument that uses interference patterns to make accurate measurements of waves
space telescopestelescopes that take pictures/data while in space
seeingblurry image

Section 3

Question Answer
CCDsensors used in digital cameras and video cameras to record still and moving images
pixelsminute area of illumination on a display screen, one of many from which an image is composed
nebular theorytheory that the solar and stellar systems were developed from a primeval nebula
solar nebulamassive cloud of gas and dust that collapsed into itself
planetismalwhen planets form from rocks and stuff smashing together
frost lineparticular distance in the solar nebula from the central protosun where it is cool enough for hydrogen compounds such as water, ammonia, and methane to condense into solid ice grains
terrestrial planetsplanets made of rock
jovian planetsplanets made of gas- massive
asteroidobject containing rock
asteroid beltline of asteroids
cometobject containing ice/dust
Oort cloudhypothetical huge collection of comets orbiting the sun far beyond the orbit of Pluto
Kuiper Beltmajor asteroid belt