Assuworld 16

zomovefa's version from 2018-02-27 08:21


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Vincritistine inhibitsM phase
Methotrexate, 5FlurouracilEtoposide, irinoectan - S phase
Bleomycin, DoxorubcinG2
P53 & RBG1-S phase inhibited


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Pagets diseaseExcess of osteoclast activity
OsteosarcomaExcessives mineralzied matrix
AchondoplasiaInhibiton of cartilaginous growth
Congenital rubella can be prevented by giving mother?Live rubella vaccine


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ApocrineMammary Glands
Holocrine Sebaceous gland(Acne),
MerocrineSalivary glands,eccrine sweat


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10-15umUpper respiratory tract -> Cough & sneezing
2.5-10umTrachea & Bronchi -> Mucociliary clearance
Less than 2umTerminal bronchioli or alveoli -> Phagocytized by macrophages


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Enveloped, single stranded RNA virusRubella
Gram positive coccus in chainsGroup B Streptococcus
Non-enveloped, single stranded DNAParvovirus
Enveloped, double stranded DNACMV, HSV, VZV
Obligate intracellular protozaToxoplasma gondii


Question Answer
UTI leads toPyelonephritis -> Sepsis -> ARDS
Uterine artery relation to ureterAnterior -> River flow under the bridge
Internal Iliac artery relation to ureterPosterior
SarcoidosisScattered non-caseating granulomas
Necrotizing inflammation and pulmonary hemorrhageGranulomatosis with polyangitis -> Lungs and kidneys -> Cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, nephritic syndrome
65 yr old with hypertension & type 2 diabetes and cardiac ascultation over the apexLeft ventricular hypertrophy or restricitve cardio myopathy
Individual Hemogloblin is calledMonomeric subunits similar to myoglobin -> High oxygen-dissociation curve
Pt present with sudden onset headache, heart palpitations, apprehensiveness, bp190/110, 120/min, pt has a history of coming in a month ago for similar symptomsPheochromocytoma ->Increased release of Catecholamines
A pt presenting with involuntary movements, ataxia & tremor. History of ~Bipolar(lithium) & Hypertension(New drug)Hydrochlorthiazide interaction with Lithium
Lithium drug contraindicationHydrochlorothiazide, NSAIDS, ACE inhibitors -> Ataxia,Tremors OR Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Elderly man with exertional dyspnea, cough, symptoms started 6months ago. History of reccurent pyleonephritis, peptic ulcer disease, and rheumatoid arthritis(Taking a medication for a long time but stopped one year ago), CHest xray shows boot shaped heart with bilateral reticulonodular opacitiesPulmonary fibrosis -> Honecomb appearance
10 yr old with high fevers& chills for past few days, NO history of trauma other than minor scratches while playing outside(HEALTHY), soft tissue swelling with periosteal reaction over the lower end of the femurS.Aureus
Osteomyelitis (Tibia, femur or fibula)causesEpisode of bacteremia(Ivdrug or catheter), Diabetes infection spread, Fracture
Soft tissue swelling and a periosteal reaction over the lower end of femur in a healthy childOsteomyelitis
Bleeding in between joints,muscles, subcutaneous tissueCoagulopathy Clotting factor Normal BT but Prolonged PT or PTT
Epistaxis & petechiaeMucocutaneous bleeding Abnormal platelets
12yr old boy with excessive bleeding after tooth extraction, hx of joint swelling from minor trauma, Normal BT & PTT, Abnormal PTFactor Vii Deficiency
Phospholipid content of the amniotic fluidFetal lung maturity
AFP levels increased inNeural tube defects
Protein with reverse transcriptase acitivty that adds TTAGGG repeats to 3'end of chromosomesTeleomerase -> Stem cells like epidermal basal cells(skin) have long teleomerase
22yr old with sudden onset of pain stifness to one side of neck, head is tilted to one sideand he cannot straighten it, hx of new psyhiatric drugAcute dystonia (Extrapyrimidal symptom) due to antipsychotic medication due to Dopaminergic antagonism
Blockade of a1 adrenergic Orthostatic hypertension
GABA antagonismConvulsions
Antagonize h1 receptorSedation & weight gain
Antagonism of muscuranic receptorAnti-cholinergic -> Urinary retention
What is the ligament found on the anterior lateral aspect of the foot?Talofibular ligament
CHF MEANSRAS system on -> Sympathetic ON -> Increase alveolar resistance -> Decrease lung compliance, Cardiac output, Renal perfusion, Mixed venous oxygen content
36 yr old with hemoptysis, Hypertension, hematuria, alcohol-fixed neutrophils treated with pt serum demonstrate immunofluorescenceRPGN -> Wegners -> cANCA
ThiazolinedinesIntracellular nuclear receptor
Pt presenting with dysuria,urine frequency, urgency with a hx of cytoscopy(genitourinary) evaluation of hematuria recently, Leukocyte estrase+ & Nitrite -Enterococcus UTI -> Gram + cocci in chains with Gamma hemolysis on blood agar
Head of the pancreas tumor sxObstructive jaundice -> pruritius, dark urine, pale stools
Cancer in the body & tail sxMidepigastric abdominal pain
Pancreas malignancy risk factorsAge, Smoking, Diabetes mellitus, Chronic pancreatits
In order to gastroenteritis which one require tiny bit to get the conditionShigella
43 yr old sudden severe headache bp 160/90Rupture of Saccular aneurysm
Water borne gastroentritis, Oxidase + gram negative comma shaped rods, survive in alkaline mediaVibrio cholera -> Stool sample shows Mucus and some sloughed epithelial cells -> Rive water stools
Camplobacter Jejuni s shaped gram - oxidase +motilestool sample shows -> erythrocytes and leukocytes
Erythrocytes, Leukocytes with neutrophilic predominance in stool sampleShigella, salmonela,C jejuni, EIEC
Leukocytes & monocytesSalmonella typhi
External hemorrhoids or Anal fissure (Painful defecation, brig red blood)Posterior midline distal to the dentate line
Carotid massage/ for Paroxysmal Supraventricular tachycardiaIncreased afferent baroreceptors from carotid sinus, firing rate, & parasympathetic BUT Prolong AV refractory period
Nasal ulcer and glomerulonephritisoligouria are most likely due toWegners Granulomatosis -> c-ANCA Cytoplasmic staining anti-neutrophilic antibodies OR Antiproteinase 3 Neutrophils
Auto immune hepatitis antibodies against?Smooth muscle cells
Anti-mitochondrial antibodiesPrimiary Biliary cirrhosis
Boy complains of weightlifting poor endurance, arms feels like jelly and also muscle cramps and urine discoloration ONLY Improved with oral glucose before exerciseMcArdle disease -> Glycogen phosphrylase deficiency Muscle Glycogen -> Glucose-1-phosphate
Clostridium perfringes necrosisRelease alpha toxin -> Degrade letchin(phospholipic component) -> Degrade cellular phospholipid
Clostridium perfringes energyCarbohydrate
Step pyogenesPlasminogen
S. AureusToxic shock syndrome T cell hyperstimulation
Diptheria & PseudomonasElongation factor ribosylation
Descending aortic dissection NEARLeft subclavian artery
Ascending aortic dissection NEARsinotubular junction
UV damaged by sun exposure leads toEndonuclease nicking of the damaged DNA strand
Xray and gama raysEnd joining repair of double-stranded DNA breaks(radiation damage)
Pt with a history of tooth extraction presents with sudden onset right side weakness and speech difficulty. NO travel history, Large friable irregular masses attached to the atrial surface of a valveSubactute infective endocarditis -> Mitral valve affected -> Mitral valve prolapse
24 yr old presents with low energy, decreased appeptite,insominadepression family history of mother with mood swings. After starting a new medication pt presents with not sleeping for 5 days,spending money on boats for world peace mania What was the new drug? Anti-depressants -> Sertraline -> SSRI OR TCA
Caucasian female girl presents with urine discoloration. Hx of impetigo that was treated 3 weeks ago. hematuria,mild proteinuria, red blood cell castsPostinfectious glomerulonephritis -> Discrete subepithelial humps on electronmicroscopy -> Coarse granular deposits of IgG & C3 lumpy bumpy
Histological picture of Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritisLight Microscopy - Enlarged hypercellular golmeruli / Lumpy & bumpy granular deposits of IgG & C3 on immunofluorescence /
Electron microscopy of Poststreptococcal golmerulonephritisElectron dense deposits on the epithelial side of the basal membrane on electronmicroscopy
DIC in preganancy with high bp leads to bleeding from gum and vaginaPlacental abruption from hypertension leads to tissue factor thromboplastin release leading to coagulation cascade
DIC in pregnancy with low bp, with cardiogenic shock leads toAmniotic fluid embolism
Dietary lipids(Triclycerides) absorbed & digested where?Jejunum & Duodenum
Pt symptoms with short exercise tolerance and SOB with High pulmonary capillary wedge pressureMitral stenosis -> regurgitant flow into left atrium
After MI pt has a repurfusion injury leading to ischemia induced ventricular arrythemia DOCIV Amiodarone or Lidocaine - Class IB - Inactivated Na channel
GLUT 4 Insulin Dependent receptorsMuscle & Adipocytes -> As Glucose increases Insulin is also increased
GLUT 1,2,3,5 Independent receptorsBrain1, Intestine5, RBC1, Kidney2, Liver2, Pancreas2, Placenta3, Neuron3, Sperm5
Standard deviation 0.5 & Mean 5.0ng/ml with 95% interval5+(0.5X2) & 5-(0.5X2) -> 6.0ng/ml &4.0ng/ml
Pyruvate -> Oxaloacetate cofactor?B7 Biotin - raw egg associations
Pt with Dihydrohodamine flow cytometery is negative for greenfluoroscence(means abnormal neutrophils)Chronic granulomatous oxidase NADPH oxidase deficiency
Adding NBT TO pts neutrophils leading to yellowNBT to dark blue NBT (NORMAL)Chronic granulomatous oxidase NADPH oxidase deficiency
MyeloperoxidaseEnzyme found in neutrophilazurophilic granules that is used for intracellular killing by the production of bleach
Basophilic oval inclusions in mature neutrophilsLeukomoid reaction
A pt who is presenting with 3 day history of fever,dyspnea, yellow sputum, 102fever, sounds and crackles in right lower lung field & HIGH leukocyte alkaline phosphataseLeukemoid reaction
Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase NORMAL OR ElevatedLeukomoid reaction -> BASOPHILIC OVAL INLCUSION IN MATURE NEUTROPHILS
Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase LOWCML
Hbs antigen liver injury mechanismCd8 T lymphocytes response to viral antigen on the cell surface resulting in hepatocyte damage
Dense cellular aggregrated of uniform atypical lymphoid cellsb cell origin- ebv in a aids pt who is presenting with personality changes and headache is due toPrimary CNS lymphoma
What other condition is similiar to G6PD?Glutathione reductase deficiency
Pt who have renal artery stenosis and are put on ACE inhibitors leads toReduction of renal filtration fraction -> Increase serum creatine -> Renal failure
ACE inhibitors does what to efferent arteriole?Dilate
Vitamin D intoxication sx Mental status changes, muscle weakness, constipation, polyuria, polydipsia
Pt serums shows milky plasma that forms creamy-appearing supernatant upon standing Plasma lipopprotein lipase acitivty is decreased after IV heparin administrationFamilial Chylomicronemia syndrome Type I -> Lipoprotein lipase deficiency with elevated chylomicrons -> Acute pancreaitits, Lipemia retinalis(milky retina), Xanthomas, Hepatosplenomegaly
HIV+ presenting with bloody diarrhea multiple hemorrhagic polypoidal lesions, spindle cells with surrounding blood vessel proliferationKaposi sarcoma
Lip smackingTardive Kinsia -> Extrapyrimadal symptoms seen in antipsychotic medications
Frequent eye blinking, shoulder shrugging, repetive throat clearingTourrete Syndrome Motor & vocal tics
Motor alone or vocal alone tics but NOT BOTHChronic tic disorder
3 week old girl with abdominal distention, vomiting blood streaked stools, prematurityRISK FACTOR, Abdominal xray shows curvilinear areas of lucency that parallel the bowel wall lumenNecrotizing enterocolitis -> Premature immune leads to over growth of bacteria from breast feeding leading to ischemic necrosis
Saphenous veins for heart graft is from whereInferlateral to the pubic tubercle
Cromolyn Inhibits mast cell degranulation -> Inhibits release of histamine from vesicles
Anti-histamines preventHistamine binds to the target receptor
ZileutonInhibits converison of Arachnoic acid -> Leukotrienes
Glucocorticosteriods for asthmaPrevents gene transcription -> phosphlipase A2
Omalizumab preventIgE from binding to Mast cell
1 Hr old boy with tachypnea, hypoxiaPulmonary hypoplasia, lack of prenatal care, flattened nose, club feet Limb deformities What following is most likely to be foundPotter syndrome Renal agenesis
Pt who was treated for a sore throat a week ago with penicillin presents with violaceous raised non blanchable lesions & palpable purpuraLEUKOCYTOCLASTIC Vasculitis -> Drug induced -> Penicillin,cephalosporins,sulfonamides,phenytoin,allopurinol
Inflammation of subcuaneous fat, painful erythematous nodules, widening of connective tissue septae due to neutrophilic infiltration &fibriin exudationErythema Nodusm
Round firm non tender lesions at pressure points in advanced rheuatoid arthritis (necrotic center surrounded by pallisading macrophages & lymphocytes)Subcutaneous Rheumatoid nodules
Infertile male with azospermia, recurrent pneumonia, digital clubbing, bilateral absence of vas deferens dxCF -> cHLORIDE LEVEL IN SWEAT
Pt with sudden abdominal pain, ascites, with reticulocytosisHemolytic anemia,leukopenia,anemia, thrombocytopeniaPancytopenia bloody urine when wakes up in the morning to peeParoxymal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria -> PIGA GENE mutation leading to CD55 &CD59 deficiency which is supposed to prevent complement activation
CSF shows normal glucose and low proteinViral meningitis
CSF shows low glucose and High proteinBacterial meningitis
Most common cause of viral meningtisfever, headache, vomiting, neck stiffness in kidsEnterovirus,Arbovirus, HSV 2
Most common cause of bacterial meningitis fever, headache, vomiting, neck stiffness in adultsAdults - S.Pneumonia & N.Meningitidis / Neonates - Group B streptococcus
Fracture at frontal,parietal,temporal, sphenoid bones is calledPterion -> Middle meningeal artery -> Maxillary artery epidural hematoma


Question Answer Column 3 Column 4
Glycogen -> GlucosePompeacid a-glucosidaseCardiomegaly,Normal glucose levels, Glycogen accumulation in lysosomes
Muscle glycogen -> Glucose-1-phosphateMcArdlemuscle phosphorylaseExecise muscle fatigue,No rise in blood lactate
Not sureCori diseaseDebranching 1-6 glucosidase or 1-4 transferaseHepatomegaly,Ketotic hypoglycemia,Hypotonia & weakness
Glucose 6phosphate -> Glucosevon GierkeGlucose 6-phosphataseHepatomegaly, Fasting hypoglycemia, Lactic acidosis, Hyperuricemia & Lipidemia