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Articulatory-Resonance System

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abisnail's version from 2017-05-21 22:17

Section

Question Answer
Where is the foramen magnum?At the base of the occipital bone
What part of the occipital bone articulates with the atlas?Occipital condyles
What do the frontal paranasal sinuses do?Drain into the nasal cavity
Which bone forms the top of the nasal cavity and takes the olfactory N to the brain?Ethmoid bone
Where is the cribriform plate?Between the nasal and cranial cavities
Why is the cribriform plate perforated?For olfactory nerve fibres
What shape is the sphenoid?Butterfly shaped
Where is the sphenoid?Posterior to the ethmoid, anterior to the foramen magnum
Where are the pterygoid processes?They run from one side of the skull to the other but you only see the edges - behind the maxilla and under the frontal bone
Where are the paired parietals?Behind the frontal bone
Where are the paired temporals?Under the parietals and behind the sphenoid
Where is the styloid processes?Under the external auditory meatus
What forms the zygomatic arch?The zygomatic process which articulates with the temporal process of the zygomatic to form the zygomatic arch
What is in the mastoid section of the temporals?Mastoid air cells, tympanic antrum, legmen tympanic roof of tympanic cavity
What is in the tympanic section of the temporals?The vestibulocochlear system
Name the 3 bones of the inner earMalleus, incus, stapes
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Section

Question Answer
How many facial bones are there?14
What allows up to pull the lips together?The maxillae and palatine processes (anterior 3/4 of the hard palate)
Where are the palatine bones?Posterior 1/4 of the hard palate
What supports the teeth?Alveoli on the mandible
Where is the vomer?Septum, it comes down from the ethmoid
Where are the nasals?Bridge of the nose
Where are the lacrimals?Behind the nasal
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Section

Question Answer
How many layers do the lips have?4
What are the different layers of the lips called?Skin, muscular, glandular, mucous
Name the sphincter muscle that surrounds the lipsOrbiculares oris
What does the deep layer of the lips have?Concentric rings to pull lips together
What is inside the cheeks?Buccal cavity
How many layers do the cheeks have?4
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Section

Question Answer
How many teeth does a child have?20
How many teeth does an adult have?32
Name the different teethIncisors, canines, premolars and molars
What is an angled outward jaw called?Maxillary overbite and overjet
What is a class I occlusion?Normal
What is a class I malocclusion?Molars okay, anterior abnormality
What is a class II malocclusion?Overbite
What is a class III malocclusion?Underbite (chin juts out)
Name the components of the hard palateAlveolar ridge, rug, palatal arch, midline raphe, incisive foramen
Name the three layers of the velumPalatal aponeurosis, intermediate muscle layer, superficial mucous membrane
What is the palatal aponeurosis?A connection point for muscles
Which muscles raise the velum?Levator palatini and uvula muscle
Which muscles pull the pharyngeal wall forward?The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles
Which muscles lower/relax the velum?Palatopharyngeus and palatoglossus
Which muscles lower/tense the velum?Tensor veli palatini
What are the pillars of fauci?Two bulges through which palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus run through
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Section

Question Answer
What is the velopharyngeal mechanism VPM?A mechanism by which we close off the nasal cavity
Which muscle form the sling of muscle in the velo-pharynx?Levator veli palatini
Which muscle assists in tightening the seal?Uvular muscle
How does the uvular muscle assist in the VP mechanism?It shortens, elevates and thickens the velum
How does the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle assists in the VP mechanism?It pulls the posterior wall forward and lateral walls inward
How do the palatoglosus and palatopharyngeus assist the VP mechanism?It lowers the velum to create a nasal
How does the tensor veli palatini assist in the VP mechanism?Lowers slightly, flattens and tenses the palatal aponeurosis
How does the VP mechanism assist swallowing?It closes the nasal cavity and the muscles may house receptors that aid the swallowing reflex
How does the VP mechanism assist phonation?It raises the velum increasing supraglottic volume which reduces the supraglottic pressure, less subglottic pressure is required to maintain vocalisation
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Section

Question Answer
What is the root of the tongue anchored to?The anterior surface of the epiglottis
What is the corium of the tongue?Connective tissue beneath the mucous membrane
What is the fibrous midline septum of the tongue?It provides an attachment point for the muscles in the tongue
The tongue is like a muscular hydrostat. What is that?an incompressible fluid-filled sac in which the volume is constant. A displacement in one area produces displacement in another (like a waterbed)
Where is the inferior longitudinal muscle?Between the hyoid and root to the tongue apex
What does the inferior longitudinal muscle do?Depress the tongue tip and move it side-to-side, it also shortens, protrudes and retracts the tongue
Where is the superior longitudinal muscle?Between the root and septum and the tongue edges
What does the superior longitudinal muscle do?Elevates the tongue tip and moves it side-to-side, protrudes and retracts the tongue and relaxes the lateral edges
Where is the transverse muscle?Median fibrous septum to lateral margins
What does the transverse muscle do?Narrows and elongates the tongue, relaxes the lateral edges and elevates the posterior part of the tongue
Where is the vertical muscle?Dorsum to lateral and inferior tongue surfaces
What does the vertical muscle do?Flattens the tongue and protrudes and creates the midline groove in the tongue
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Section

Question Answer
Where is the genioglossus?Mandible to hyoid, pharynx and tongue dorsum
What does the genioglossus do?Protrudes and retracts the tongue, depresses the middle and relaxes the edges
Where is the hyoglossus?The hyoid to the posterior tongue
What does the hyoglossus do?Depresses the sides of the tongue and retracts the tongue
Where is the palatoglossus?The velum to the lateral tongue
What does the palatoglossus do?Lowers and relaxes the velum and elevates the posterior tongue
Where is the styloglossus?Styloid to lateral dorsum of the tongue
What does the styloglossus do?Retracts the tongue towards the pharynx for swallowing
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Section

Question Answer
What does the masseter muscle do?Closes and retracts the jaw
Describe the masseter muscleSlow and powerful
Where is the masseter muscle?Zygomatic arch to the mandible
What does the medial pterygoid do?Elevates and protrudes the jaw
Where is the medial pterygoid?Pterygoid (sphenoid) to mandible
What does the temporalis muscle do?Elevates and retracts the mandible, lateral movement
Describe the temporalis muscleQuick 'snapping' muscle because it's longer
Where is the temporalis muscle?Temporal bone to mandible
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Section

Question Answer
Name the depressor/retractor mandibular musclesDigastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid and lateral pterygoid
Where is the digastric muscle?Mandible and mastoid to hyoid
Where is the mylohyoid muscle?Mandible to hyoid
Where is the geniohyoid muscle?Mandible to hyoid
Where is the lateral pterygoid muscle?Pterygoid to mandible
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Section

Question Answer
What is the anterior pillar of Fauci called?Palatoglossum
What is the posterior pillar of Fauci called?Palatopharyngeus
What do the pillars of Fauci have a role in?Role in lowering the velum and elevating the back of the tongue
Where are the tonsils?In the tonsillar fossa between the pillars of Fauci
What is Waldeyer's ring?Lingual tonsil, palatine tonsils, pharyngeal tonsils
What is the purpose of Waldeyer's ring?Traps bacteria in oral and pharyngeal cavities
Where are the eustachian tube openings?Either side of the adenoids
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Section

Question Answer
How many muscles are involved in facial expression?17
Which muscle runs around the mouth?Orbicularis oris
How many labial muscles are there?1 depressor and 2 levator
How many zygomatic muscles are there?2
How do the buccinator and risorius travel?Horizontally
How many muscles travel vertically?1 depressor, 1 levator, mentalis
How many muscles travel horizontally, parallel to the orbiculares oris?2
How many muscles are around the eyes and forehead?3
How many muscles are below the jaw?1
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Section

Question Answer
Name the 3 regions of the pharyngeal cavityNasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
What is the pharyngeal aponeurosis?A funnel of connective tissue that runs from the base of the skull to the oesophagus
How big is the pharyngeal aponeurosis?12cm long, 4-2/5cm wide and 2-0cm deep ( starts big and gets narrower as it goes down)
How many superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles are there?4
Where are the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles?From the cheek, tongue, jaw and pterygoid
How many medial pharyngeal constrictor muscles are there?2
Where are the medial pharyngeal constrictor muscles?At the back of the oropharynx
How many inferior pharyngeal constrictor?2
Where are the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles?From the thyroid and cricoid
Where are the palatopharyngeus muscles?Posterior pharynx to the pillars of fauci
What do the palatopharyngeaus muscles do?Depress the velum b y working with the superior constrictor
Where are the salpingopharyngeus muscles?Near the eustachian tube opening to the palatopharyngeus
What does the stylopharyngess do?Elevates and widens the pharynx
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Section

Question Answer
Which CN innervates the velum?Vagus X
Which CN innervates the tongue intrinsics?Hypoglossal XII
Which CN innervates the tongue extrinsics?Hypoglossal XII
Which CN innervates the mandible elevators?Trigeminal V
Which CN innervates the mandible depressors?Trigeminal V
Which CN innervates the pharyngeal constrictors?Vagus X
Which CN innervates the face and nose?Facial VII
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Section

Question Answer
What is the source-filter theory of vowel production?Harmonic structure of vocal tone remains intact
What is transfer function?Vocal tract resonances
What does transfer function do?Produces a spectrum reflecting both source and filters (vowels)
F1 is determined byTongue height
What does a high tongue mean?Low frequency
F2 is determined byAnterior-posterior position
What is anterior-posterior position?Anterior is low frequency, posterior is high frequency
Two frequencies are produced/reinforced byTongue movements
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Section

Question Answer
How many phases of swallowing are there?3 + 1
What is the first swallowing phase?Oral preparatory phase
What is involved in the first swallowing phase?Getting food ready to swallow, chewing and swallowing
How is food keep in the mouth?The back of the tongue is up and the lips are closed
Does breathing continue?Breathing in continues through the nose
How is a bolus formed?By the tongue
Which muscles are involved in keeping the food in the mouth?Mandible elevators/depressors, tongue instrinsics/extrinsics, lip/cheek muscles
What is the second phase of swallowing?Oral phase
What happens to the tongue during the oral phase?The posterior tongue lowers, anterior elevates and retracts
What happens to the bolus during the oral phase?The bolus approaches the oropharynx, the back of the tongue and the velum elevate to seal the nasopharynx
When does the oral phase terminate?When the bolus reaches the faucial pillars
Which muscles are involved in the oral stage?Muscles of the lips, face, tongue and velum
Which nerves are innervated in the oral stage?Trigeminal V, facial VII and hypoglossal XII
What is the third swallowing phase?Pharyngeal phase
Which phase is a possible point of aspiration?Pharyngeal phase
What happens during the pharyngeal phase?The velum is elevated, the superior constrictor narrow faucial pillars
What happens to the hyoid and larynx during the pharyngeal phase?The hyoid and larynx elevate, move anteriorly, relaxes the cricopharynxgeus, relaxes upper oesophageal sphincter
What happens to the epiglottis during the pharyngeal phase?The epiglottis covers the larynx and the CF adduct
What forces the bolus down the pharynx?Constrictors
What happens to the bolus during the pharyngeal phase?The bolus divides around the epiglottis and rejoin at the inferior constrictor to be forced into the oesophagus
Which nerves are involved in the pharyngeal phase?Trigeminal V, Vagus X, Accessory nerve XI and the hypoglossal XII
What is the fourth swallowing phase called?The oesophageal phase
How is the pharynx sealed during the oesophageal phase?The cricopharynxgeus contracts to seal the pharynx
How is breathing permitted during the oesophageal phase?The larynx and velum lower to permit breathing
How is the bolus forced down during the oesophageal phase?Striated muscle in the upper 1/3 of the pharynx force the bolus down, then smooth muscle peristalsis and gravity move the blue down to the lower oesophageal sphincter, which relaxes causing the bolus to enter the stomach
Which nerve is involved in the oesophageal phase?Vagus X
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