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Art & Archeology Test 1

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rosesarered's version from 2017-09-19 21:09

Section: Chapter 1

Question Answer
Ars (Latin)skill. Usually interpreted as anything created. Often interpreted in the modern world as requiring an emotional response (supposed to have an emotional intent or content)
Techne (Greek)making or doing something as opposed to understanding it mechanical arts (including medicine, music, art & craft)
Craft the practical application of an art, rather than art as an end in itself. May include architecture, decorative arts, design
Technology (contemporary understanding): the use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to invent useful things or to solve problems
Cultural AnthropologyStudy of behaviors in a society or civilization
Material CultureThe physical expressions of culture
ArchaeologyStudy of past cultures through collection of physical evidence
HistoryStudy of past cultures through written records
Art History/Visual CultureStudy of past cultures emphasizing visual creations (architecture, sculpture, painting, graphics, photography, etc)
Ephemeral artscan be described, but not re-experienced (i.e., music, dance, spoken word)
Interpretation of art before history relies on1. Physical context (where was it found, what was found with it, was it always there?) archaeology 2. Direct observation and description (what does it look like? What are the techniques used? ) Art history, archaeology, material culture 3. Intelligent conjecture based on cultural comparisons (with historical information from a later society, some scholars make comparative conjectures) Art history, history, anthropology, material culture
Paleolithicc. 40,000 – 7000 bce, The Old Stone Age
Anatomically Modern Humans(200k-120k years ago) = Homo Sapiens Sapiens
Mesolithicmiddle part of Stone Age, between Paleolithic and Neolithic
NeolithicNew Stone Age
Sculpture in the roundthree-dimensional pieces - carved free of any background or block
Relief sculpturewhere the surrounding material is carved away forming a background that sets off the projecting figure
Incisemark or decorate (an object or surface) with a cut or a series of cuts
Chauvet Cavethe earliest known site of prehistoric cave paintings
Modelingcreating reliefs by shaping the damp clay on the cave’s floor - creating the illusion of 3 dimensionality by using light and shade, or molding 3 dimensions from a malleable substance
Post-and-lintel constructiontwo upright posts support a horizontal lintel (a variation is dolmen)
Corbel/vaultlayering stones in pyramidish shape until layers meet and can be capped with a stone - an arched structure that spans an interior space
Megalith/Monolithlarge stone architecture/small stone architecture
Dolmen (cromlech)a megalithic tomb with a large table like stone (capstone) laid on upright ones
Thatchplant material like reed or straw tied over a framework of poles (wattle and daub)
Wattle and daubbranches woven in basket like pattern then covered with mud or clay, how walls were made in neolithic age
Cairnartificial hill made of small rocks and dirt - pile of stones that served as a burial site as a underground tomb marker
Passage gravenarrow passage made of large stones leading into one or multiple burial chambers covered in earth or stone
Hengecircle of stones or posts surrounded by ditch with built-up embankments
Mortise & tenonjoints made by a conical projection at the top of each upright that fits like a peg into a hole in the lintel
Aestheticcultural construct
Hybridityjoining different animals or humans into one creation. Making a concrete a belief that cannot happen in our world
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Section: Chapter 2

 

Question Answer
Fertile crescentFertile land that could support early agriculture, notably between the Tigris and Euphrates, and along both sides of the Nile in Egypt.
lapis lazulibrilliant blue stone only found in Afghanistan and imported at great expense
Pictographhighly stylized depiction serving as a symbol for a person or object- writing utilizing these symbols
Cuneiformearliest form of writing used by Mesopotamians
MesopotamiaLand between the Tigris and Euphrates in the fertile crescent
ZigguratAncient Mesopotamian tall stepped tower made of earthen materials, often supporting a shrine
“waiting room”a room at the top of the Ziggurat where you wait for the divine to speak to you
Registerhorizontal section of story telling
Votiveimages dedicated to the gods
Hieratic scale (hierarchical scale)the biggest and highest part of the image is the most important/ highest status- shown through stylized hats, elevation, and being seated versus standing
Stelea vertical stone slab decorated with inscriptions and reliefs. Used as grave marker or commemorative monument
eye idolthousands found in ziggurat Etemenanki. Gifts to the divine that are eternally vigilant in the waiting room.
LamassuAssyrian hybrid creature with a man head, powerful animal body, with wings
Apadanaan audience hall built on a higher level with in the city, had open porches on 3 sides, and had a square hall that could hold several thousand people.
Enuma ElishSummerian stories of how the waters are controlled and lands were formed
Gilgamesh/EnkiduShepherd king of Uruk. May have been historical king known as killer of lions. Went into the underworld. Enkidu was his best friend. 12 tablets of his stories.
cylinder seala cylinder with carvings that are rolled out over clay to have an image repeated
EtemenankiTemple foundation connection of heaven and earth.
Tigris/Euphratesthe main rivers of Mesopotamia, part of the fertile crescent
bas relieflow relief/sculpture
cone mosaicRepetitive zigzag or lozenge patterns formed by embedding many clay cones
Crenellationalternating high and low sections of a wall, giving a notched appearance and creating permanent defensive shields on top of fortified buildings
heraldic compositionA composition that is symmetrical on either side of a central figure
SumerianCities that formed along the rivers south of Mesopotamia between 3500 and 2340. Invented wagon wheel and plow and written script
AkkadianLived in the lands north of Uruk. They adopted Sumerian culture but spoke Semitic language. Ruled by Sargon (king of four quarters of the world)
AssyrianControled most of Mesopotamia by the end of the seventh century. Ruled as far west as Egypt until 600 BCE. Built huge palaces on top high platforms inside a series of fortified cities
BabylonianAmorites and Hammrabi united and ruled 1792-1750. Had written legal code for his laws and the punishments for breaking them
PersianIn an era before mass communication was possible...
Narrativean image that recounts an event from a story. Continuous narrative contains multiple scenes from the same story that appear with in a single frame
Protoliterateright at the moment when writing is being produced
Religionbelief, ritual and myth
*Beliefwhat you know to be true
*Ritualhow you live out your belief
*Mythstories that explain belief & ritual
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Section: Mesopotamian Deities

 

Question Answer
Mardukdragon god of storms
Ishtargoddess of love, arts, and destruction. Descends into the underworld on a Lion
Nergalgod of war, plague, death, and disease
Inanna/Nannasky gods
Shamashsun god
Ahura MazdaPersian
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