Art & Archaeology Test 3

rosesarered's version from 2017-11-06 18:15


Section = Aegean
Question Answer
AegeanBronze Age, exporters of wine, oil, metalwork, pottery - importers of raw materials and food - first shipping fleet in the Mediterranean
Heinrich Schliemannfounder of the modern study of Aegean civilization
Arthur Evansarchaeologist, named Crete culture “Minoan”, discovered the palace complex at Knossos
Knossos“palace/throne room” - capital of Crete, ruled by Minos according to legend - there was a palace complex there that was discovered by Arthurt Evans
Homerwrote the epics Iliad and Odyssey (750)
Tholosa large, circular, above-ground structure that was a burial place (aka a beehive tomb)
Minosking of Crete
Minotaurhalf-man, half-bull monster who lived in the labryinth and who ate the men sent to him annually by Minos as sacrifices to appease him
Labyrysdouble axe
Labyrinthhome of the double axe -> maze - Daedalus and Icarus
Gorgon/MedusaMedusa was a monster, and Gorgon was generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair
Atlantisfictional island
Mycenaecitadels, Greek mainland, home of Agamemnon, Heinrich Schliemann 1870s
Fresco (buon fresco)murals painted on a still wet plaster surface
Fresco seccodry fresco
Repousséartists pushed up relief forms (perhaps by hammering) from the back of a thin sheet of gold
Chryselephantinesculpture made of gold or ivory
Faience(tin-glazed pottery) colorfully glazed fine ceramic (ex: female figurines holding serpents (Snake goddess))


Section = Greek
Question Answer
HerodotusGreek historian, Father of History
Poseidongod of the sea, holds a three-pronged spear
Athenadaughter of Zeus, goddess of wisdom, war, victory, and the city
Persephonegoddess of fertility and queen of the underworld
Nikegoddess of victory, often shown winged and flying
Platoforms (the cave)
Protagoras“man is the measure of all things” -all values, all physicality, all events are the result of human action, not the divine (a form of existential relativism: there is truth as long as a man recognizes it to be true)
Pythagorasperfection in mathematical/musical harmony
Philosophylove of wisdom - rational, systematic approach to knowledge of reality, existence, nature, values, etc
Humanismnot a philosophy, but a culture that puts man at the center of all things - emphasis on humans achieving perfection in form and mind
Barbariansa label the ancient greeks used for all foreigners, whom they considered uncivilized
AretéExcellence (living up to your potential) *physical (gymanstics) *mental (oratory, rhetoric/argument, science) *spiritual (music and “virtue”)
HubrisExtreme Pride/Arrogance/Bullying - the worst crime a human can commit (human to human crime/doesn’t involve the gods)
Chthonicbelonging to the underworld
Chaosthe origin to everything and the first thing that ever existed
776 bcethe first Olympic games - organizing factor: language
Tripoda three-legged structure used as a seat or stand
PantheonRoman temple
Parthenosmeans “virgin”
meanderdecorative border, Greek key
Greek vase typesamphora, krater, hydria, olpe, oinochoe, lekythos
Amphoratwo handled storage jar for oil, wine
Kratermixing bowl for wine, water
Black figure vaseforms were black/painted
Red figure vase(reversed from black figure) negative space was black/painted
Kourosfree-standing ancient Greek sculptures which first appear in the Archaic period in Greece and represent nude male youths. In Ancient Greek kouros means "youth, boy, especially of noble rank".
Korefree-standing ancient Greek sculpture of the Archaic period depicting female figures
Archaic smileeyes- wide and open, mouth- closed-lip expression
Peplosdraped rectangle of cloth pinned at shoulders and belted to give a bloused effect
Mausoleum at Halikarnassosone of the seven wonders of the Ancient World - combo of Egyptian, Persian, and Greek styles (pyramid, podium, and ionic columns)


Section = Greek Architecture
Question Answer
Acropoliselevated space in town, often focused on religious space - location of the temples and also the political leader’s palace - city on the hill
Agoracentral public space:markets, politics, etc
Panathenaic Processionprocession to the games
Greek Templesstructures to house Greek deities
Naoscentral room, inner chamber
Propylaia“foregate” (pro-pylon)
StoaDORIC covered walkway or portico, commonly for public use - early stoas were open at the entrance with columns lining the side of the building
Antaeouter posts,
Columns in antiscolumns in between pillars
Peristylerow of columns
Prostylefree standing columns across the front of a building
Adytonrestricted area
Stereobatesupport for stylobate, steps below stylobate, foundation for building
Stylobatesupport for columns
Columnround post
Piersquare post
Shaftlong vertical part of column
Baseof column
Flutethe flutes of the shaft of the column
Capitalthe top of the column
Abacusthe flat slab on top of a capital, supporting the architrave
Echinusa rounded molding below an abacus on a Doric or Ionic capital
Volute spiral, scroll-like ornament that forms the basis of the Ionic order, found in the capital of the Ionic column
Entablaturea horizontal, continuous lintel on a classical building supported by columns or a wall, comprising the architrave, frieze, and cornice
Friezedecorative band
Triglypharchitectural term for the vertically channeled tablets of the Doric frieze in classical architecture
MetopeThe rectangular recessed spaces between the triglyphs on a Doric frieze
Pediment triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns
Acroterionarchitectural ornament placed on a flat base called the acroter or plinth, and mounted at the apex of the pediment of a building in the classical style
Entasisouter curvature of columns
Caryatidcolumns carved in the form of clothed women with their finely pleated, flowing garments - post in the form of a scuplted human figure, usually female


Section =
Question Answer
Contrappostoweight on one hip
Chiastic Principalcontrapposto - S-shape of figure
Euthymiosideal of self restraint
Kosmiosorderly, harmonious
Symmetriarelationship of parts
The CanonPolykleitos’ set of rules for the ideal human figure
Delian Leaguean association of Greek city-states
Wet Draperycloth that appears to cling to the body in animated folds while it reveals the contours of the form beneath
HellenisticAntigonid, Ptolemid, and Seleucid kingdoms
Gigantomachymost important battle that happened in Greek mythology - a fight between the Giants or Gigantes, sons of Gaea and Uranus, and the Olympian gods who were trying to overthrow the old religion and establish themselves as the new rulers of the cosmos
Mausoleuma building, especially a large and stately one, housing a tomb or tombs