Art Appr Test 3

rosesarered's version from 2016-11-14 02:35

Section: Buddhist Art (Early Asian Art) Ch. 4

Question Answer
Buddhanot represented in art for awhile
Great Stupa at SanchiNA - Early Asian Art (Buddhist) - kind of a tomb for Buddha himself, sites of pilgrimages and rituals, domed, solid, contained relics of Buddha
toranasstone gateways to Great Stupa, decorated with carved incident from Buddha's life and past lives, yakshis
relicuarywhere relics are housed
Yakshi Bracket FigureNA - Early Asian Art (Buddhist) - from east tarana of Great Stupa at Sanchi, figure associating female beauty with fertility, appears almost nude, source of life
SoldiersNA - Early Asian Art (Buddhist) - from mausoleum of Shihuangdi, Qin dynasty - as many as 1,000 potters molded/carved the clay and 85 artists signed the figures
Seated BuddhaNA - Early Asian Art (Buddhist), China - 45' tall, long ear lobes and robe are signs of high status, less humanistic
Nanchan TempleNA - Early Asian Art (Buddhist), China - earliest surving wood frame architecture in China, supported by brackets (architectural supports projecting from walls)
calligraphycomes from Greek word meaning "beautiful writing", regarded as one of highest forms of artistic expression
Great Wild Goose PagodaNA - Early Asian Art (Buddhist), China - uses brackets
pagodastowers associated with Buddhism, relicuary, Buddhist worshipping places
HaniwaNA - Early Asian Art (Buddhist), Japan - 27" tall, Shintoism
haniwahollow ceramic works of scuplture, for ceremonial purposes, thought to be link between living and dead
kamiShinto deities
Main CompoundNA - Early Asian Art (Buddhist), Japan - Horyu-Ji, earliest surviving compound w. earliest surviving wood architecture in the world, pagodas are relicuaries
terracottafigures standing in battle array around the tomb of Shihuangdi (Soldiers)
bodhisattvassaintly beings on the brink of buddhahood who have vowed to help others become buddhas before accomplishing it for themselves
Shivalord of existence, often represented as lord of dance
Stupaenlightenment seat
Relicsmaterial remains associated with a holy person
Bracketsarchitectural supports projecting from the walls
Reliquarya repository for sacred relics
Lacquera type of hard glossy varnish

Section: Indian Art (Later Asian Art) Ch. 9

Question Answer
finialknob like decoration at top of an architectural form
Shiva as Lord of the DanceNA - Later Asian Art - right hand holds drum which represents drum (ceasless beat like unstoppable rhythm of creation/destruction & life/death)
Kandariya MahadevaNA - Later Asian Art - dedicated to the god Shiva
angkormeans "capital city"
Angkor WatNA - Later Asian Art (Hinduism & Buddhism), Cambodia - devoted to Hindu god Vishnu, world's largest religious complex, angkor wat means "city temple", not original name of temple
bas reliefreally low relief sculpture
Taj MahalNA - Later Asian Art (Indian), Agra, India - central plan structure, mausoleum for wife of ruler, mosque
cenotaphsfunerary monuments
Travelers Among Mountains and Streamsartist Fan Kuan - Later Asian Art, China - hanging scroll, displayed only at special occasions, weighted to hang/unfold straight
Twelve Views of Landscapeartist Xia Gui - Later Asian Art, China - 1 of 4 surviving "views" of 12, hand scroll, view from left to right, water based painting, subtle washes, thin pigments, quick and loose brush work
hand scrollshanging scrolls, narrow, horizontal scroll, kept rolled up and only viewed at special occasions, unrolled only bit by bit
colophon panellast thing you see on a scroll, contained inscriptions by artists added over time
Amida Buddhaartist Jocho - Later Asian Art, Japan (Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in Temple) - made of gold leaf, serene, compassionate
gold leafgold dust layered on top of sculpture (gives appearance made of solid gold)
Byodo-in TempleNA - Later Asian Art, Japan - pureland Buddhism
Linear perspective

Section: Medieval Art Ch. 10

Question Answer
Man (Symbol of St. Matthew), Book of DurrowNA - Medieval Art (Irish)
bishopslords in charge of certain sections
medieval religioncombination of Christianity and indigenous religion, saw roman culture as pagan
churchprimary patron of the arts
texts/manuscriptsmainly made by monks and nuns, put on vellum or parchments and were very expensive to make
medieval scriptorium (scriptoria)where they make and prepare texts/manuscripts at monasteries
Hinged ClaspNA - Medieval Art (England) - found in Sutton-Hoo burial mound,
millefioriItalian for "a thousand flowers"
Chi Rho Page, Book of KellsNA - Medieval Art (Scottish), greek letters chi rho iota (XPI)
Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning FiguresNA - Medieval Art - illuminated manuscripts, from Lindau gospels
repoussetechnique of pushing/hammering to make raised forms, used for Crucifixion
St. Gall PlanNA - Medieval Art - the more relics a church had, the more powerful they were, blueprint
cloisterenclosed courtyard from which open all the building that are most central to the life of a monk
Page with Matthew, the Evangelist, the Coronation GospelsNA - Medieval Art
ambulatorycurving aisle passageway
gallerycontinuous upper-story platform overlooking the main space
Typanumarched half circle

Section: Romanesque Art Ch. 10

Question Answer
Romanesque periodland was primary source of wealth and power, artisans and merchants grew in importance, crusades began, many moved to urban areas with more efficient farming
Romanesque architectureheavy stone masonry, barrel vaults, four-part groin vaults, buttresses
Santiago de CompostelaNA - Romanesque Art (Spain) - nave
Roman architecture influencesrounded arches, heavy stone masonry, engaged stone buttresses
buttressesallow for bigger and taller buildings, thick masses of masonry that reinforced walls at critical points
half-barrel vaultsaka quadrant vaults
The Last Judgement Typanumartist Giselburtus (patron) - Romanesque Art - Cathedral of Saint Lazare, Autun -
mandorlabody halo
portalmain entryway, decorative
Virgin & ChildNA - Romanesque Art (France) - wooden sculpture

Section: Gothic Art & Architecture Ch. 11

Question Answer
Chartes CathedralNA - Gothic Art (France) - most of its stained glass windows have survived
Chartes Cathedral naveNA - Gothic Art (France)
Chartes Cathedral planNA - Gothic Art (France)
Royal PortalNA - Gothic Art - west facade of Chartes Cathedral, columns are purely decorative, high relief, highly stylized, kings, queens, saints
Jamb Statues from the Royal PortalNA - Gothic Art - linear drapery
Virgin and ChildNA - Gothic Art - Gothic is more naturalistic, emphasis of curvature, no straight lines, the Gothic s-adaption of contrapposto pose to more naturalistic
Scenes from Genesis in the Good Samaritan WindowNA - Gothic Art - nave aisle from Chartes Cathedral
commissioncontract between patron and artist, patron buys and dictates the art
Madonna & Child Enthroned Cartist Cimabue - Gothic Art (Italy) - overlapping form, stacked figures to represent depth, shading of light and dark represents 3D form, foreshortening (spacial inconsistencies though), figures seem to be floating, tempera painting
foreshorteningillusion of flat surface in which people seem to project/recess into space
Madonna & Child Enthroned Gartist Giotto - Gothic Art (Italy) - much higher contrast of light and dark, more full bodied 3D figures, Giotto uses overlapping form but figures seem to be on one plane, tempera painting
naturalismemphasis on human how they exist in real space
linear perspectivethe way artists suggest real space
tempera paintingmedium of painting - painted on wooden panels, simple, less expensive but laborious, pigment (colored stone) mixed with egg yolk
frescomedium of painting - durable, pigment mixed with water, painted on wet plaster
Arena Chapelartist Giotto - Gothic Art (Italy) - fresco cycle (wall of paintings) of Bible stories, private chapel, barrel vaulted, simple on outside, decorative on inside
Lamentationartist Giotto - Gothic Art (Italy) (Arena Chapel) - from fresco cycle, Jesus being taken down from cross

Section: The Early Renaissance Ch. 12

Question Answer
Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini & his wifeartist Jan van Eyck - Early Renaissance Art (Belgium) - representation of textile merchant, easel painting, commissioned for Giovanni's home not for a church, 33" tall, appears to be secular everyday life but religious undertones and symbolism
renaissancemeans "rebirth", changes in worldviews, thoughts, values, more humanistic, more confidence in self
oil paintingmedium of painting - the most prominent painting for centuries, allows for minute detail, powdered stone mixed with oil, can erase and blend easily, takes long time to dry, developed in Northern europe

Section: Reading Quizzes

Question Answer
bodhisvattasbuddhist saints who are on the brink of buddhahood who have vowed to help others become buddhas before achieving it themselves
BrahmaHinduism, the creator who embodies spiritual wisdom
calligraphymeans "beautiful writing" in Greek, is regarded as of the highest forms of artistic expression in China, is created by combining stylized strokes, executed with brush and ink, to form characters of Chinese writing
Shintothe indigenous belief system of Japan that encompassed a variety of ritual practices centering around family, village, and devotion to kami
Templo Mayora work of monumental architecture built by the Aztec civilization
Taj Mahalmausoleum and mosque
Angkor Wattemple and cosmic monument
Xia Gui’s “Twelve Views of Landscape”demonstrates a philosophy of Buddhism known in the west as zen Buddhism.
PorcelainCeramics made from a mixture of kaolin and petuntse
Scriptoriaworkshops in which nuns and monks made illuminated manuscripts and other medieval texts.
CloisterAn enclosed courtyard in monasteries that opens to all the buildings central to the life of a monk
Repoussethe technique of pushing or hammering up from the back of a metal panel to produced raised forms
Buttressesthick masses of masonry that reinforce walls at critical points, making taller buildings possible.
Giselbertus originally believed to be a sculpture who signed his work such as "The Last Judgment," but recently he is though to be a count who donated funds to the church.

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