Art Appr Test 1

rosesarered's version from 2016-09-15 19:27


Question Answer
naturalisma style of depiction in which the physical appearance of the rendered image in nature seems to be accurately described - represent figures in ways that replicate actual appearance as perceived in reality
realismlifelike description of the appearance of people, objects, and natural world
stylization/stylizea manner of representation that conforms to an intellectual or artistic idea rather than to a lifelike description of natural appearance

Chapter 1 -Prehistoric Art in Europe


Question Answer
Prehistoric Art in Europeperiod in human history before written language or written historical records
Paleolithic AgeOld Stone Age - hunted, gathered for food, nomadic tribes followed seasonal migrational patterns of animals, sculpted and painted figurines seemed to have served as objects of worship, devotion, or empowerment
Neolitihic AgeNew Stone Age - lived in permanent dwellings year-round, lived off agriculture and domesticated animals
sculpture in the roundstatues carved free of any background or block
Paleolithic Prehistoric cave paintingsmost found in France, meaning unsure maybe: decorative, images of devotion for animals, ceremonial sites of induction for young hunters, social function (strengthen bonds, magic), teach young hunters about animal behavior, rituals, religious function, burial sites
cave paintings(made of)ground earth or clay, charcoal, burnt bones (pigment) plus water, vegetable juice, urine, animal fat, bone marrow, blood
paintcombination of pigment (color) and liquid vehicle (means of application)
Woman from WillendorfPrehistoric Art in Europe - symbols of female health and fertility, care giver and life giver - representation of ideal womanhood, precious object that they carry (example of sculpture in the round)
Wall Painting w. Horses, Oxen, and RhinocerosPrehistoric Art in Europe
Hall of BullsPrehistoric Age in Europe - decorative (aesthetic), ceremonial images of devotion for animals (spiritual), used to instruct young hunters on animal behavior to show respect for prey, ceremonial sites of induction for young hunters, burial sites
Bird-Headed Man w. BisonPrehistoric Age in Europe
carvingto cut from hard material
Megalithic ArchitectureLarge Stone - tombs and ceremonial structures - in Neolithic Age, reflect complex societies, cooperative collaboration between social groups, burial sites, ceremonial sites,
Post and lintel systemstrong, horizontal elements (lintel) are held up by vertical elements (post) with large spaces between them
Capstonerests on lintel, tops of vertical support (table-like rocks)
Corbel vaultan arched structure that spans an interior space
StonehengePrehistoric Art in Europe - one of most complex, most famous example of megalithic architecture- 8 different phases of construction, took a millennium and a half to finish - sarsen circle>arc of bluestones>sarsen trilithon
Hengecircle of stones or posts often surrounded by a ditch with built up embankments

Chapter 2 -Art of the Ancient Near East


Question Answer
Art of the Ancient Near Eastmajor agricultural shifts, time of great political upheaval, industrialization, social hierarchies - Sumeria, Akkadian, Babylon - "cradle of civilization"
Steleupright large stone slab with carved inscriptions or pictures
Symbolimages that stand for an idea, object, belief, or action
Relief structuresculpted image carved away from a background to a certain depth (called hi or low depending on the depth)
Stele of Naram-SinArt of the Ancient Near East (relief sculpture) - Akkadian ruler, military victory
Hierarchical scalerelative size indicates relative importance
Sumeriansinvented writing on clay tablets, pictographs
Pictographssimple pictures that represent a thing or concept- drawn in wet clay with a pointed tool
Styluswriting instrument with triangular wedge at one end and a point at the other
Cuneiform(Latin for wedge-shaped) earliest form of writing based on an alphabet (Mesopotamian)
Zigguratsstepped pyramid structures with a temple or shrine on top
Nanna Ziggurat at UrArt of the Ancient Near East, Sumerian - devoted to moon God Nanna (god of agriculture)
Registerhorizontal bands to organize visual stories (art)
Votive StatuesArt of the Ancient Near East, Sumerian - limestone statues dedicated to the gods - carvers of these figures followed conventions (traditional ways of representing forms) of Sumerian art
Akkadiansadopted Sumerian culture but spoke own Semitic language
Stele of HammurabaiArt of the Ancient Near East, Babylonian - made of diorite, relief carving, cuneiform script, Hammurabai's law code
Babyloniansadopted ziggurat form and preserved Sumerian texts

Chapter 3 -Art of Ancient Egypt


Question Answer
conventionsestablished ways of representing things
palettesflat stones (with a circular depression carved on one side) used to grind and prepare makeup
Palette of NarmerArt of Ancient Egypt, Old Kingdom - ceremonial
ground linesolid baselines indicating planes on which figures stand, also indicates depth
hieroglyphicspictographs related to spoke word, basically picture writing
necropolis"city of the dead"
Judgement of Hunefer before Osiris Illustration from the Book of the DeadArt of Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom
Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, & MenkaureArt of Ancient Egypt, Old Kingdom - Great Pyramids of Giza
Inner Coffin & Funerary Mask of TutenkhamunArt of Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom - mask:gold and semiprecious stones
Menkaure & A QueenArt of Ancient Egypt, Old Kingdom - probably his main wife
KhafreArt of Ancient Egypt, Old Kingdom - dignity, calm, and permanence
Seated Scribe, Old KingdomArt of Ancient Egypt
idealizationthe process in which artists try to make forms to attain perfection based on cultural values and/or own personal ideas
colonnadesrows of columns

Chapter 5 -Aegean & Ancient Greek Art


Question Answer
Aegean Artwomen are pale; men are darker
Figure of a WomanAegean Art, Cycladean - eyes all over body represent healing, power
Young Girl Gathering SaffronAegean Art, Minoan - saffron is yellow dye, herb
profile (peer)sense of movement, naturalism, stylization, decorative, initiation rites, shaved head shows youth
Palace at KnossosAegean Art, Minoan - sites for ceremonial rituals and commercial centers
Creteraised animals, farmed, traded for metals,
Minoanstraveled, ruled by confederacy of aristocrats
Bull LeapingAegean Art, Minoan - nosis:two women and a man leaping, ritual-worship of bulls, initiation rites for men and women
Lion's GateAegean Art, Mycenaean - only entry to Mycenae, built with post-and-lintel system, made with precious stones (since looted)
Mycenaestrong fortified city, highly stratified (distinguish between wealthy and poor), great metalsmiths
cyclopean architecturelarge stone masonry seen in Mycenaean citadels and tombs (so large thought to be built by cyclops)
corbeled vaulta stone ceiling built up in regular courses of dressed stone in ever-decreasing rings carefully calculated to meet at the peak in a single capstone
corbel archoverlapping stones
keystonestone set at top of arch
Aegean GreeceAthens dominated Greek culture, art becomes more naturalistic, strive for perfect cannons (rules of architecture) and harmony, order, & balance
Greek Art phasesGeometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic
Temple of AphaiaGreek Art, Archaic (Doric) - systematic approach to architecture, post-and-lintel system, earliest Doric architecture
ordersDoric, Ionic, and Corinthian - system of interdependent parts whose proportions are based on mathematical formulas
peristylerow of columns
Doric orderno base to columns
pedimenttriangular "roof"
Peplos KareGreek Art, Archaic - represents deities, goddesses, marble free-standing structures
koreclothed female figure
Anavysos KourosGreek Art, Archaic - represents gods, warriors, athletes (idealized), marble free-standing structures (Greeks worshipped male figures for fertility, family)
kourosnude male figure
Contrappostothe invention of presenting standing figures with opposing alterations of tension and relaxation around a central axis

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