# AQA GCSE Geography Earthquakes and Casestudy

sibobage's version from 2016-04-04 14:29

## Section 1

What margins do earthquakes occur at and what are they caused by?Earthquakes occur at all three types of plate margins. They are caused by the tension that builds up at all three types of plate margin.
How are earthquakes caused by the tension at destructive margins?Tension builds up when one plate gets stuck as it's moving down past the other into the mantle. Then waves go through the mantle disturbing the core.
How are earthquakes caused by the tension at constructive margins?Tension builds along cracks within the plates as they move away from each other.
How are earthquakes caused by the tension at conservative margins?Tension builds up when plates that are grinding past each other get stuck.
How do earthquakes form 2 and 3?The plates eventually jerk past each other, sending out shock waves (vibrations). These vibrations are the earthquake. The shock waves spread out from the focus - the point in the Earth where the earthquake starts. Near the focus the waves are stronger and cause more damage.
How do earthquakes form 4 and 5?The epicentre is the point on the Earth's surface straight above the focus. Weak earthquakes happen quite often, but strong earthquakes are rare.
What does the Richter Scale measure and how?This measures the amount of energy released by an earthquake (called the magnitude). Magnitude is measured using a seismometer - a machine with an arm that moves with the vibrations of the earth.
Upper limit of the Richter Scale and meaning of the different magnitudes?The Richter Scale doesn't have an upper limit and its logarithmic - this means that an earthquake with a magnitude of 4. Most people don't feel earthquakes of magnitude 1-2. Major earthquakes are above 5.
The Mercalli Scale?This measures the effects of an earthquake. Effects are measured by asking eye witnesses for observations of what happened. Observations can be in the form of words or photos. Its a scale of 1-12 - 12 is total destruction and 1 is only detected by instruments.

## Section 2

Background to earthquake in a rich part of the world?L'Aquila, Italy. 6th April 2009. 8.3 on the Richter Scale.
Cause of earthquake in the rich part of the world?Movement along a crack in the plate at a destructive margin.
Background on earthquake in a poor part of the world?Kashmir, Pakistan. 8th October 2005. 9.6 on the Richter Scale.
Cause of an earthquake in a poor part of the world?Movement along a crack in the plate at a destructive margin.
Preparation for L'Auila Earthquake?There are laws on construction standards, but some modern buildings hadn't been built to withstand earthquakes. Italy has a Civil Protection Department that trains volunteers to help with things like rescue operations.
Preparation for Kashmir Earthquake?No local disaster planning was in place. Buildings were not designed to be earthquake resistant. Communications were poor. There were few roads and they were badly constructed.
Primary Effects of L'Aquila Earthquake?Around 290 deaths, mostly from collapsed buildings. Hundreds of people were injured. Thousands of people were made homeless. Thousands of buildings were damaged or destroyed. A bridge near the town of Fossa collapsed, and a water pipe was broken near the town of Paganica.
Primary Effects of Kashmir, Pakistan?Around 80,000 deaths, mostly from collapsed buildings. Hundreds of thousands of people injured. Around 3 million people were made homeless. Entire villages and thousands of buildings were destroyed. Water pipelines and electricity lines were broken, cutting off supply.
Secondary Effects of L'Aquila Earthquake?Aftershocks hampered rescue efforts and caused more damage. Fires in some collapsed buildings caused more damage. The broken water pipe near the town of Paganica caused a landslide.
Secondary Effects of Kashmir Earthquake?Landslides buried buildings and people. They also blocked access roads and cut off water supplies, electricity supplies and telephone lines. Diarrhoea and other diseases spread due to little clean water. Freezing winter conditions shortly after the earthquake caused more casualties and meant rescue and rebuilding operatiosn were difficult.
Immediate Responses to L'Aquila Earthquake?Camps were set up for homeless people with water, food, and medical care. Ambulances, fire engines and the army were sent in to rescue survivors. Cranes and diggers were used to remove rubble. International teams with rescue dogs were sent in to look for survivors. Money was provided by the government to pay rent, and gas and electricity bills were suspended.
Immediate Responses to Kashmir Earthquake?Help didn't reach many areas for days or weeks. People had to be rescued by hand without any equipment or help from emergency services. Tents, blankets and medical supplies were distributed within a month but not to all areas affected. International aid and equipment such as helicopters and rescue dogs were brought in, as well as teams of people from other countries.
Long-term Responses to L'Aquila Earthquake?The Italian Prime Minister promised to build a new town to replace L'Aquila as the capital of the area. An investigation is going on to look into why the modern buildings weren't built to withstand earthquakes.
Long-term Responses to Kashmir Earthquake?Around 40,000 people have been relocated to a new town from the destroyed town of Balakot. Government money has been given to people whose homes had been destroyed so they can rebuild themselves. Training has been provided to help rebuild more buildings as earthquake resistant. New health centres have been set up in the area.