Are stem cells specialised and where are they found?
Stem cells are unspecialised. Stem cells are found in the human embryo and in adult bone marrow.
What do stem cells change into?
Stem cells change into all the different types of body cell, e.g. nerve cells, muscle cells. We say the cells differentiate.
What can happen to stem cells in the adult bone marrow?
Stem cells in the adult bone marrow can change into other types of cell, e.g. blood cells.
What can cells in the embryo do?
Layers of cells in the embryo differentiate into all the cells the body needs.
What is hoped about human stem cells?
It is hoped that human stem cells can be made to differentiate into many types of cell. The cells formed could then be used to treat conditions such as paralysis, e.g. by differentiating into new nerve cells.
Gregor Mendel was a monk who worked out how characteristics were inherited. Mendel was the first person to suggest the idea of separately inherited 'factors'. yh
Why did it take a long time for Mendel's ideas to be accepted?
It took long time for Mendel's ideas to be accepted. That was because scientists did not know about chromosomes and genes until after Mendel died. Also, Mendel was a monk, not a scientist, and his work was not widely published or published at all in any science journal.
What are Mendel's 'factors' now called and where are they found?
Mendel's 'factors' are now called genes. Genes are found on chromosomes.
What are chromosomes made of and what is it?
Chromsomes are made of DNA which is a very long molecule with a double helix structure.
What are genes?
Genes are short sections of DNA
Is DNA different for every individual or not?
Every individual, except for identical twins, has different DNA. This unique DNA pattern can be used to identify people by their DNA fingerprint.
Each gene codes for a particular combination (order) of amino acids which make a specific protein
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