APWH "Must Know" Vocabulary term 1450-1750 CE

xapogapa's version from 2015-05-07 21:50

Section 1

Question Answer
A political theory holding that all power should be vested in one ruler or other authority. approach to defining deviance that rests on the assumption that all human behavior can be considered either inherently good or inherently bad.Absolutism
an instrument that is used to observe and calculate latitude by charting the position of the starsAstrolabe
Consisted of a trade triangle that brought slaves from Africa to the Americas, sugar and cotton from the Americas to Europe, and manufactured goods from Europe to Africa N. AmericaAtlantic Slave Trade
Distribution of military and economic powers among rival nations so that one does not have more power than the otherBalance of Power
Movement of people of various ethnicities to become more spread out and intermixed.Biological Diffusion
Member of upper nobility in Russia from the 10th through the 17th centBoyars
Folding books from the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, written in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican bark clothCodices
Territory under the immediate political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign/large-scale migration of any one or more groups of people to a colonial area/possessing control over a colonyColonies/colonization/colonial administrations
Trading system between "The New World", Africa, and Eruope -Africa -> Coffe bean, horses, disease, bananas, sugar cane -> New World -New Wrold -> Tomatoe, potatoe, syphilis, corn -> Europe -Europe -> Liquor, guns, trinkets -> AfricaColumbian Exchange
A channel to convey water or other fluidsConduits
A conqueror, especially one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.Conquistadors
Person of European descent born in the new world (sometimes all nonnative people)Creoles/Criollos
A system of involuntary servitude in which the laborer is forced to work off a debt. This mostly used on Mexicans and African AmericansDebt Peonage
Christian slave boys typically taken from the Balkans, converted to Islam, and tested on their abilitiesDevshirme
A person living in a region overrun by Muslim conquest who was accorded a protected status and allowed to retain his or her original faithDhimmi
Belief that ruler's authority comes directly from GodDivine Right
Grants authority over Amerindians in Spanish colonies: Grant holder got constant supply of cheap labor and goodsEncomienda
Philosophical movement in 18th century that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behaviorEnlightenment
In Spanish speaking countries, a big farm or ranchHacienda
The separate part of a Muslim household reserved for wives, concubines, and female servants.Harem
Young people paid for their passage to the New World by working for a certain number of yearsIndentured servitude
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and part of the Ottoman armyJanissaries
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks and profits among a lot of peopleJoint-stock companies
Ability to read and writeLiteracy
1. Local Dem. whites stuffed ballot boxes so their own legislators would take control 2. White community brings cannons and takes courthouse 3. Blacks can shoot crows and wolves, but white comm has controlled their new rifles well 4. Blacks no history of violent revoltLocal resistance (e.g. Food riots/Samurai revolts/Peasant uprisings)
Heavily armed, fast ships that brought luxury goods from China to central america and carried silver from central america to China.Manila Galleons
To put ashore and abandon on a desolate island or coast byway of punishment or the like.Maroon
Promote overseas trade between and country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by limiting trade with Mother CountryMercantile Practices/Mercantilism
Amerindian and European descentMestizo
Mixed African and European descentMulattoes
The leg of the triangular trade route on which slaves were transported from Africa to the AmericasMiddle passage
Colonial residents of Latin America who were born in SPainPeninsulares
A large agricultural estate that was first established in 1500's to grow sugarcanePlantations/plantation systems
Appearing as most important, powerful; strongest or most common in number or amountPredominance
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church and resulted in the "protesters" forming several new Christian denominations including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of EnglandReformation/protestanism
Colonial forced labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines.Repartimiento
Association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration, and colonizationRoyal chartered monopoly companies
European intellectual movement associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physicsScientific Revolution
Religion in North India combines belief from Hinduism and Islam in reincarnation no castes, monotheistic everyone as equal statues in eye of god
religion should be practiced by living in the world and coping with life's everyday problems
Rosseau: Will of people sacred and the legitimacy of the monarchs depended on the consent of the peopleSocial Contract
Transatlantic trading network Merchants carry rum from New England to Africa In Africa they traded rum for enslaved people Enslaved transported to West Indies and sold for sugar and molasses Goods then shipped back to New England to be distilled into rumTriangular Trade
Representatives who ruled in the king's name in each provinceViceroys
African religious practices among descendants in Haiti.Vodun
Attempt to improve technology and culture with the incorporation of Western idealsWesternization/modernization
Japanese sect of Buddhism with large emphasis on meditationZen

Section 2

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