APWH "Must Know" Vocabulary term 1450-1750 CE

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Section 1

Question Answer
A political theory holding that all power should be vested in one ruler or other authority. approach to defining deviance that rests on the assumption that all human behavior can be considered either inherently good or inherently bad.Absolutism
an instrument that is used to observe and calculate latitude by charting the position of the starsAstrolabe
Consisted of a trade triangle that brought slaves from Africa to the Americas, sugar and cotton from the Americas to Europe, and manufactured goods from Europe to Africa N. America - 630,000 Angola to Brazil - 4,100,000Atlantic Slave Trade
Distribution of military and economic powers among rival nations so that one does not have more power than the otherBalance of Power
movement of people of various ethnicities to become more spread out and intermixed.Biological Diffusion
upper nobility in Russia from the 10th through the 17th cent. Not as powerful as other Nobles in Western EuropeBoyars
In 1521, the Aztec were conquered by the Spanish and were forced to convert to Catholicism; all of their codices were destroyed; many of the codices made afterwards showed Spanish influence; surviving codices: Dresden, Paris, and Madrid; Codices
Some European administrations, such as Leopold's Congo, relied on brute force Others relied on military adventurers, settlers, and avaricious entrepreneurs All Europeans relied on African armies to do their bidding Over time, Europeans created stable, rationalized bureaucracies New trade patterns disrupted traditional lives Overall, European administrations were quite fragileColonies/colonization/colonial administrations
Trading system between "The New World", Africa, and Eruope -Africa -> Coffe bean, horses, disease, bananas, sugar cane -> New World -New Wrold -> Tomatoe, potatoe, syphilis, corn -> Europe -Europe -> Liquor, guns, trinkets -> AfricaColumbian Exchange
special interest organizations which collect contributions from individuals, bundle them together, and pass the contributions to candidates and political committeesConduits
the spanish explorers who conquered the native americansConquistadors
Spanish colonists living in America They had land & wealth but had no political power.Creoles/Criollos
A system of involuntary servitude in which the laborer is forced to work off a debt. This mostly used on Mexicans and African Americans -Declared a violation of the 13th amendment in 1911 Devshirme the class of slaves boys which were brought in from Christian caucuses to Constantinople to serve as administrators or military. The most promising were trained in Topkapi palace for high positions within the administrationsDebt Peonage
the class of slaves boys which were brought in from Christian caucuses to Constantinople to serve as administrators or military. The most promising were trained in Topkapi palace for high positions within the administrationsDevshirme
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even HindusDhimmi
belief that rulers authority comes directly from GodDivine Right
grants of indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South AmericaEncomienda
The 18th century (1700s) intellectual movement whose proponents believed that human beings could apply a critical, reasoning spirit to every problem. -This movement makes use of the metaphor of light. -In this movement, views from a secular standpoint were encouraged. -Main pillars: skepticism, wit, toleration, and science. -This movement was considered dangerous by some (i.e. Catholic Church).Enlightenment
In Spanish speaking countries, a big farm or ranchHacienda
The private domain of the sultanHarem
you work for a matter of time and then are free to go. short term slaveryIndentured servitude
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the ottoman army from the 15th-19th century.Janissaries
companies formed by wealthy investors to begin colonies inthe new world, the first J.S.C. was the Virginia company which began the firstsettlement of Jamestown, this eventually became the colony of Virginia, thesecond colony that was started by a J.S.C. was Plymouth, the Virginia companypaid for the voyage of the mayflower, the thirdJoint-stock companies
Ability to read and writeLiteracy
1. Local Dem. whites stuffed ballot boxes so their own legislators would take control 2. White community brings cannons and takes courthouse 3. Blacks can shoot crows and wolves, but white comm has controlled their new rifles well 4. Blacks no history of violent revoltLocal resistance(e.g. Food riots/Samurai revolts/Peasant uprisings)
Heavily armed, fast ships that brought luxury goods from China to central america and carried silver from central america to China.Manila Galleons
To put ashore and abandon on a desolate island or coast byway of punishment or the like.Maroon
Belief that there was a finite amount of wealth, countries need to seize that wealth. Export more than import, get as much gold as possible.Mercantile Practices/Mercantilism
Spain and Portuguese parentsMestizo
born of Portuguese and African parentsMulattoes
the leg of the triangular trade route on which slaves were transported from Africa to the Americas. 15% died Departed Europe with manufactured goods, African purchased or kidnapped Africans, across the Atlantic with slaveMiddle passage
those born on the iberian peninsulapeninsulares
a large agricultural estate that was first established in 1500's to grow sugarcaneplantations/plantation systems
Appearing as most important, powerful; strongest or most common in number or amountpredominance
A court-ordered correction of a written contract so that it reflects the true intentions of the parties.Reformation/protestants
Spanish colonial forced-labor system imposed on the indigenous people of Spanish America and the Philippines.- Resulted in slavery-like conditions, although the people were not owned outrightRepartimiento
a company that traded slavesRoyal chartered monopoly companies
scientific method (applied to enlightenment) law of natural sciences get applied to the laws of natural society as well (laissez-faire)Scientific revolution
found in north india combines belief from hinduism and islam believes in reincarnation no castes, monotheistic everyone as equal statues in eye of god men dont cut hair wear turbansikhism
society allows for the creation of corporations and gives them special rights. so corporations are responsible to societysocial contract
Transatlantic trading network Merchants carry rum from New England to Africa In Africa they traded rum for enslaved people Enslaved transported to West Indies and sold for sugar and molasses Goods then shipped back to New England to be distilled into rumtriangular trade
representatives who ruled in the king's name in each provinceviceroys
African religious practices among descendants in Haiti.Vodun
attempt to improve technology and cultureWesternization/modernization
A sect of Buddhism, there are different paths to enlightenment.Zen

Section 2

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