APUSH Terms 397-444

sgrover's version from 2015-04-27 00:48


Question Answer
Andy Warhol Pop art, mass production of art by screening
Warren Court Desegregation (Brown V Board of Education), rights of the accused (Miranda v. Arizona), voting reforms (Wesberry V Sanders, Reynolds v. Sims, Katzenbach v. Morgan)
1968 as "the year of shocks" Tet offensive in Vietnam, assassination of MLK and Robert Kennedy (presidential candidate), riot of Democratic National Convention (Chicago police beat antiwar protesters), Black Panthers
1968 presidential election George Wallace versus Nixon versus Humphrey; very narrow popular vote triumph to Nixon (although he had clear majority of electoral votes)
Richard Nixon, Southern strategy Lured many southern Democrats to the Republican Party (especially due to southern opposition to Civil Rights Act of 1964)
George Wallace Appeal to many conservatives, especially Southerners (oppose massive protests and integration)
Vietnamization Part of Nixon's tri-faceted plan to honorably remove troops from Vietnam; wean the South Vietnamese off of American support, gradually reducing number of American troops present
Bombing and invasion of Cambodia Another part of Nixon's out of Vietnam plan, destroy supply routes to North Vietnam through Cambodia
Kent State protest Kent State University students protesting against invasion of Cambodia, not allowed to demonstrate, violence (murder) caused by guardsmen
Silent majority Speech symbolized polarization between conservatives and liberals
Conservative backlash against liberalism Conservatives like Reagan benefited from denouncing the new left and excess antiwar protest; gave him political prominence
Detente, realpolitik Detente achieved with USSR and China by withdrawal from Vietnam; realpolitik shed the use of doctrines and policies, instead using China and USSR in alternative ways to achieve other goals (pitting China and USSR against each other, as communist nations)
Nixon visits China and Russia (1972)Bridging communication gaps, epitome of detente
Strategic arms limitation talks (SALT I) Nixon agreed with USSR to achieve nuclear equality rather than the superiority that threatened the destruction of the world; further reduced tensions between the two countries
New federalism Nixons domestic policy; federal revenue shared with states (revenue-sharing), minimum income proposed
Watergate scandal Despite near guaranteed second term, camping workers burglarized Democratic offices, cover up unsuccessful, resigned to avoid impeachment Nixon pardon by Ford to get country focused on more important matters
Energy crisis, OPEC Increased already high rate of inflation by quadrupling the price of crude oil
Stagflation Ford's and Carter's presidencies experience a recession and inflation simultaneously, solved by Keynesian economics
Pres. Jimmy Carter Panama Canal treaty, diplomacy with China, end of recognition of Taiwan; little accomplished domestically due to conservative opposition, foreign-policy more successful; Washington outsider experienced high interest rates, inflation, increased government spending, rising unemployment, decrease in union membership
Humanitarian diplomacy Fought for human rights in Africa, Panama Canal return to Panama, relations with China resolved
Camp Davis Accords (peace between Egypt and Israel) Followed years of tension, Israel would leave newly acquired lands from war, Egypt would respect Israel's other land claims; accords not completely followed, Sadat (Egypt) assassinated
Iran hostage crisis, 1979 American hostages taken by US hating Shiites upon Shah's flight from uprising, botched rescue attempts
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Despite CIA sponsored soviet resistance, Afghanistan taken by Soviet union; Ended detente between USSR and US
Deregulation Drastic cutbacks in regulation of business by the federal government (banks, transportation, communications)
Election of 1980 Decisive victory to Reagan to do his appeal over Carter (now unpopular due to lack of success in the presidency)
Pres. Ronald Reagan Offered a new deal (reminiscent of FDR) a smaller government, reduced taxes, and free enterprise; Washington outsider
Conservatism Belief in minimal government so as to allow the people their own free reign, lower taxes to stimulate economy
Religious right Political action for religion justified by decreased presence of religion in society; Pat Robertson's Christian Coalition to expand national influence
Reaganomics Capitalism would become productive when uninhibited by taxes and regulation
Supply side economics, tax cuts Tax cuts to increase population spending (help the economy), drastic cutting back on government programs due to lack of funds
Nicaraguan Contras Guerrilla army sponsored by CIA to attack procommunist revolutionaries in Nicaragua; fear of another Vietnam
Evil Empire speech, Star Wars Reagan called the Soviet Union and evil empire; Korean passenger plane shot down near Moscow (increased anti-Soviet rhetoric); strategic defense initiative (SDI) used space-based lasers as defense from nuclear attacks
Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet leader undergoing tensions on superpower and domestic levels
Intermediate range nuclear forces (INF) Treaty (1987) Reagan and Gorbachev agreed to remove and destroy nuclear weapons from eastern and western Europe; eased international tension and allowed Soviet domestic reform to take place
Fall of communism in Eastern Europe (1980) Gorbachev announced Societ withdrawal of power from all of Eastern Europe including Berlind (wall torn down, free movement)
Fall of Soviet Union (1991) Gorbachev decreased nuclear arsenals, Communist Party lost power, Boris Yeltsin (president of Russian republic) led Muscovites to take control
Graying of America Economic recession (collapse of saving and loan industry, increasing deficit due to Reagan tax cuts, retail decreased, higher crime rate)
Economic transition to to service economy in late 20th century (end of industrialism) Higher focus on services (especially education) rather than material products
Pres. H.W. Bush Carried on Reaganomics, Gulf War, Savings and Loan scandal
Gulf War, operation Desert Storm (1991) Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait despite peace treaty and refusal to abandon Iraqi occupation
1992 election Bush versus Clinton versus Perot; focus on stagnancy of economy and problems in the middle class (Clinton)
Pres. Bill Clinton Scholarly, welfare reform, "contract with America," impeachment over Monica Linsky scandal, War in Kosovo
Gays in the military Ended exclusion of homosexuals from military; due to controversy, compromise of "don't ask, don't tell" instituted
North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA (1994) Establish free trade zones between Canada, United States and Mexico, net gain in jobs due to opening of Mexican market
Contract with America (1994) Newt Gingrich (Republican congressman) planned for successful Republican party in upcoming election by pledging tax cuts, congressional term limits, tougher crime laws, balanced budget amendment, popular reforms
Clinton impeachment (1997) Helped approval ratings, not removed from office despite all the efforts of Republican congressman
Bush v. Gore (2000) Gore promising with experience, Bush appealing by family influence and plans for presidency (tax cuts, education reform, defense)
9/11 terrorist attacks NYC and DC (2001) Planes hijacked by terrorists for destruction; blame pinned on Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden, sought out in an attempt to completely destroy terrorism
Invasion of Afghanistan (2002) Overthrow of the Taliban in search of bin Laden
Invasion of Iraq, removal of Saddam Hussein, 2003 Iran, Iraq and North Korea designated as the axis of evil, institution of democratic government in Iraq to replace Hussein's dictatorship (return to spread and protection of democracy throughout the world, moving beyond containment of communism)