APUSH Terms 346-396

sgrover's version from 2015-04-26 17:35


Question Answer
China turns communist Mao Zedong (communist) to be the Nationalist forces of Kai-Shek (supported by US); seen as defeat for US, not officially fully recognized until 1973
Korean War Soviet aided North Korea attack on South Korea; MacArthur name general on behalf of UN (excluded Russia), US supplied majority of troops; recapture of South Korea and suppression of North forces to northern border; introduction of Chinese, MacArther fired for suggestion to use nuclear weapons on China; nuclear incentives for peace negotiations
Pres. Dwight D Eisenhower Republican, popular hero of World War II; "dynamic conservatism" as a middle ground between Republicans and Democrats; interstate highway system (ulterior motive of weapons transportation); St. Lawrence Seaway opened Great Lakes to Atlantic Ocean via locks; Department of Health, education, and welfare to oversee new deal programs
Conformity in the 1950s Strong patriotism and need to conform to try to avoid blame during the red scare, non-churchgoers, unmarried, and critics suspected as communists
Suburbia Middle-class; white flight from urban areas due to black migration; government supported insurance for homeowners and builders
Baby boom Unprecedented growth spurt of American population (especially urban and suburban areas)
Cult of Domesticity returns Women believed to belong in the home, scientific "evidence"; widespread in magazines, TV, etc.
G.I. Bill of Rights Government insured readjustment right to GI's after World War I unrest, loans to veterans for higher education and mortgages (contributed to economic prosperity)
Consumerism Americans can now spend what they had been told to save during the war (disposable income); increased purchasing of luxury items
Affluent society Economic prosperity of American society following World War II; doubling of national income, job to women, defense industry support of the economy
Nonconformity Elvis Pressley, Marilyn Monroe, James Dean, Beatniks - rebelled against conservative conformity of the rest of the country (especially targeted youth)
Rock 'n' roll Influence of African-American blues, music of the younger generation (gap between them and their parents)
David Riesman (the lonely crowd) Outer directed Americans conforming to peer pressure on more and social issues, rather than independently thinking on morals
Richard Nixon, Alger Hiss Nixon led movement to hiss's indictment; convicted of perjury, Nixon gained national prominence
McCarthyism Attacked people for being communist by association and unsubstantiated claims, against Truman, Marshall and Ike; downfall came with attack on the military (condemned by Senate); led hysteria of the red scare
Domino theory One country that falls into communism will cause surrounding nations to also fall "like dominoes"; spurred by South East Asia regimes (especially Vietnam)
Community on un-American activities (HUAC) Attacked public figures (Hollywood, new dealers, liberals) to root out communist spies
Truman's loyalty program Truman tested for communist alliances within government; government employees prohibited from taking part in remotely Communist activities
Rosenbergs Executed for leaking atomic secrets of Soviets, avowed communists
John Foster Dulles Secretary of State, policy liberate captive people in Eastern Europe by political pressure and propaganda; massive retaliation to counter Soviet/Chinese aggression with nuclear weapons; brinksmanship to be persistent to solve crisis (even to the extent of war)
CIA overthrow of Iran (1953) Installed Shah as dictator, overthrew Moussadegh (communist interest), in order to resist nationalization British oil holdings
CIA overthrow of Guatemala (1954) Overthrew Pres. Guzman after he nationalized American fruit fields accepted arms from USSR (communist sympathies)
Sputnik Caused American hysteria (1957), fear that Soviets were technologically superior; lead Ike to order more rigorous education program to rival Soviets (national Defense education act)
National aeronautics space agency (NASA) Launched in 1958 by Ike; successful launch of American satellite (Explorer 1); massive arms buildup
U2 incident American U2 spy planes shot down over USSR (Ike: "for national security"); US suspended further fights, Khrushchev demanded apology (refused)
Ike's farewell speech Warned of dangerous military - industrial complex (newly found power of the military to affect the path of democracy)
AFL - CIO (1955) Unemployment jitters; expelled teamster union (resorted to gangsterism); height of power of workers unions
US economy since World War II (service economy) Highest peacetime deficit in US history (due to lower tax rates for high income taxpayers, spent too much money attempting to reduce price supports to farmers)
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Blacks denied admission to all-white school; overturned Plessy V Ferguson, negating "separate but equal", ordered integration of schools as soon as possible; white southerners protested (refused to attend integrated schools)
Rosa Parks in the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) Parks arrested for refusing to give up bus seats to white man, African-American leaders called for citywide boycott of bus system (lasted almost 400 days); Supreme Court ruled segregated buses unconstitutional
Martin Luther King Jr., Southern Christian leadership conference Lead boycott, became leader of civil rights movement; urged nonviolent resistance
Little Rock crisis (1957) Ike forced to send National Guard to escort black children to school to quell riots and resistance (first time since Reconstruction that troops used in the south to enforce Constitution); resistance by white community (private schools)
Greensboro sit in (1960) Nonviolent protests to college students being refused lunch service; part of "sit in" movement to integrate all aspects of life (hotels, entertainment, etc.)
Civil rights act of 1957 and 1960 Commission on civil rights to attend to guarantee the ballot to blacks; showed governments changing views of race relations
Election of 1960 Kennedy versus Nixon, Kennedy (due to televised charisma) won over Nixon (pale and nervous)
Pres. John F. Kennedy Second youngest president, entered presidency as tensions of the Cold War increased; unable to get major initiatives through Congress due to conservative bloc; tax cuts (economic stimulation); reluctantly gets involved in civil rights; emphasizes space race (man on the moon)
Rachel Carson, silent Spring Effects of pesticides on the environment; changed ways Americans viewed their impact on nature
Berlin wall Due to threat of nuclear war, Soviets erected wall to separate East Berlin from West Berlin (end exodus of intellect to west); symbol of communist denial of freedom
Peace Corps Created in 1961 as example of liberal anti-Communism in Third World countries; "reform minded missionaries of democracy"
Bay of Pigs invasion CIA attempt to institute Cuban support to overthrow Castro; cover-up uncovered, became representation of Cuban resistance to American aggression
Alliance for progress (Marshall plan of Latin America) Americans feared Soviet infiltration into Latin America, placed secret police and military forces to prevent it
Cuban missile crisis Storage of Soviet missiles in Cuba (threat of nuclear war); Khrushchev demanded that US never invade Cuba and remove forces from Turkey; mutual compliance with each other's demands
Nuclear test ban treaty Prohibited testing of nuclear bombs above ground to slow the nuclear arms race and the release of nuclear fallout into the atmosphere
Freedom riders (Congress of racial equality - CORE) Interracial group of protesters who aim to dramatize violations of the call for desegregation; harsh treatment by Southern whites provoked Kennedy to more strictly enforce desegregation
James Meredith Black veteran escorted to be enrolled in University of Mississippi by military (school reluctant)
March on Birmingham King hosted myriad of nonviolent protesting activities to fill jail with protesters, Bill Connor (police commissioner) begin violent resistance to protesters
March on Washington, I have a dream 25,000 people (including whites) convened for political rally, MLK's speech to historical event; attempted to push civil rights Bill through Congress
Assassination of JFK, Warren commission Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald (hated his anti-Cuban policies); LBJ instituted Warren commission to investigate assassination (headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren)
Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson Dealt with Vietnam War, "great Society" program for improvement of American society, antipoverty and antidiscrimination programs
Great Society LBJ's flood of proposals to Congress for the beautification and and amelioration of American society (war on poverty, Medicare, public education spending, public television (PBS)), national endowments for the humanities and arts (NEA, NEH)
Affirmative action Sets of programs geared towards minorities and oft discriminated populations
Immigration act of 1965 Abolished national origins quotas, dramatically increase immigration (especially from Asia and Latin America)
Civil rights act of 1964 Banned racial discrimination and segregation (public), bias by federal government; enforced by equal employment opportunity commission
Voting rights act of 1965 Prohibited use of any devices (e.g. literacy tests) to deny the right to vote and enforced black suffrage rights
Forced busing Due to parents unhappy with encouraged segregation of schools, Supreme Court instituted forced busing policies (using schoolbuses as a method of integration)
Malcolm X, nation of Islam Black Muslim worked to raise spirits and pride; emphasized black institutions rather than more desegregation, black to gain freedom at any cost
black panther party Another black separatist movement; known for peaceful demonstrations, but more for police shootouts
Black power, Stokely Carmichael Black rights leader, heavily influenced by Malcolm X (advocated black separatism rather than integration)
Gains for women Rejection negative portrayals of women (language, entertainment), increased quality and use of education, more job opportunities, acceptance into military
National organization of women founded by Betty Frieden, Bella Abzug, and Aileen Hernandez; lobbied for equal opportunity where they EEOC was lacking (gender discrimination); lawsuits in mobilization of public opinion
Betty Frieden, the feminine mystique Denounced the "housewife trap" which caused educated women to hold even themselves inferior to men
Roe v. Wade Unconstitutionalized all state laws prohibiting women's rights to have an abortion performed during the first trimester of pregnancy
Cesar Chavez, United farmworkers Used nonviolent protest and boycotts to achieve better working conditions for farmers (especially Mexican-Americans)
Vietnam War United States aided South Vietnam in its war of power struggle against North Vietnam, Vietcong, USSR and China
Ngo Dinh Diem Catholic Communist autocrat of Vietnam, assassinated (with help of US)
Ho Chi Minh Contending communist politician in Vietnam, had more popularity then Diem, took power upon Diem's death
Vietcong National liberation front, gorilla militia from South Vietnam fighting alongside the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam)
Gulf of Tonkin resolution Congress authorized LBJ to repeal and prevent aggression against US troops in Vietnam, used as a blank check (perhaps too much, cause protests)
Tet offensive (1968) NLF attack on numerous South Vietnamese cities and American embassies, eventually repulsed; spoiled LBJ's record to reelection, resulted in massive protests in US to end the war; atrocities such that war could only end in stalemate
Impact of LBJ's Vietnam decision on 1960 election Impact of left primary open to Robert Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy, both promising said in the controversy award LBJ Vietnam decision on 1960 election
New left (free speech movement) Youth activist (often liberal arts students) spoke out against Vietnam War, supported widespread liberalization
Students for a democratic society (SDS) Part of the new left that envisioned "participatory democracy" (individuals control life affecting decisions), end materialism, militarism and racism; inspired by youth black activist
Antiwar protests Concentrated on college campuses, hand-in-hand with new left
Counterculture: sex, drugs, and rock 'n roll Youth looked to doing as they pleased, heedless of the consequences involved, musical and sexual revolutions