APUSH Terms 295-345

sgrover's version from 2015-04-23 23:43


Question Answer
Cause of the depression Rising stock prices and speculation, decline of construction industry, mistaken "trickle-down" economics, reliance on credit
Stockmarket crash (1929) Stock prices fell drastically; without buyers, the Stocks became essentially worthless; caused bank crashes, etc.
Hoover's policy voluntarism Emphasize the importance of private charities to help the depression
Bonus Army Veterans from World War I sought their pensions before they were too old to use them; they were denied and were run out of Washington (and violently, by MacArthur)
Reconstruction Finance Corporation Attempted to boost economy by making loans to banks and insurance companies, hoping to restart them
President Franklin Roosevelt Introduce his "new deal," won election by a relatively landslide (he was not Hoover, who the public now did not trust)
New Deal FDR's plan (although vague during the campaign) to restart the economy and pull America out of the Great Depression
Brain trust FDR's inner Circle of experts rather than just politicians in the cabinet
Hundred days Accomplished great number of relief, recovery, and reform efforts; sought practical solutions to the problems by experimentation
Emergency Banking Relief Act Four-day banking holiday to create controlled inflation, followed by reopening of sound banks, and reorganization of unsound banks
First New Deal Programs 1933 to 35, improved (but not recovered) economy
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) and National Recovery Administration (NRA) - First New Deal Programs Prevented extreme competition, labor-management disputes, and overproduction; federally coordinated consensus of business leaders (Hugh Johnson) to regulate businesses (wages, limits, working conditions)
Agricultural Adjustment Act - First New Deal Programs Subsidies to farmers to decrease production and thus increase prices
Tennessee Valley Authority - First New Deal Programs Hydroelectric power to Rivervalley; brought social and economic development to very poor area
Civilian Conservation Corps - First New Deal Programs Employed young jobless men with government projects of work-relief and environment
Federal Emergency Relief Act - First New Deal Programs Provided more funds to state and local relief efforts
Public Works Administration - First New Deal Programs Harold Ickles, provided public construction projects
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) - First New Deal Programs Insured deposits less than $5000, reassured American public of the worth of banks
Second New Deal Programs 1935-38, reform minded, more political
Social Security Act of 1935 - Second New Deal Programs Used Withheld money from payroll to provide aid to the unemployed, industrial accident victims, and young mothers; principle of government responsibility for social welfare
Works Progress Administration - Second New Deal Programs Harry Hopkins; provide work For employed and construct public works, etc. through an emergency relief appropriation act; much like civil Works administration
Wagner Act/National Labor Relations Act - Second New Deal Programs Collective-bargaining rights, close shop permitted (where workers must join unions), outlawed antiunion tactics
Fair Labor Standards Act - Second New Deal Programs Banned child labor established minimum wage
Keynesian economics Philosophy that deficit spending during the depression would increase purchasing power and stimulate economy; FDR disagreed with the policy at first and borrowed money to cover deficits
Indian Reorganization Act (1934) Halted sale of tribal lands, enable tribes to regain unallocated land; repealed Dawes severity act of a 1887; help secure Indians entry into new deal associations; led by John Collier
Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor First female cabinet member
Butler v. U.S. Killed that AAA, although FDR insisted on continuing by creating smaller state-level AAAs
Schechter v. U.S. Unconstitutionalized the NRA due to delegation of legislative authority from Congress to executive
Court Packing Judiciary reorganization Bill; FDR's attempt to put in extra judges who would support him without doubt
Okies and Arkies Americans who were forced out of their homes in Oklahoma and Arkansas (respectively) due to dust storms and drought known as the dustbowl
Deportations of Mexicans Nationalist against foreign non-English-speaking workers (took jobs away from American men); encourage to leave the US
Critics of FDR Father Charles Coughlin (benefited only wealthy people and corporations), Huey Long (share our wealth), Francis Townshend (old age revolving pensions)
Split of AFL in 1935 Loss of members due to new following of CIO and discrimination
Congress of Industrial Organizations Created by John L Lewis for unskilled labor, organize "sitdown strike" against GM to work for recognition
Dorthea Lange Hired to photograph ordinary Americans experiencing the depression
Good Neighbor Policy Withdrawal of American troops from foreign nations (especially Latin America) to improve international relations and unite Western Hemisphere; Clark Memorandum (rebukes the big stick); peaceful resolution of Mexican oilfields
Isolationism in 1920s and 1930s Americans concerned with economic depression; sought to avoid European involvement, no apparent immediate threats
Neutrality Acts, 1935-37 Prohibited aiding of belligerent nations, banned civilian involvement; limited power of president during international war, built-up Armed Forces
Quarantine Speech, 1937 FDR encourage democracies to quarantine their opponents (economic embargoes); criticized by isolationists
Neutrality Act, 1939 Allowed sale of weaponry to democracies on "cash and carry" basis, avoided full-blown war; danger zones proclaimed; solved American unemployment crisis
Four Freedoms Speech FDR asked for increased authority to aid Britain; freedom of speech/expression, of religion, from want, from fear; resulted in Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease Act (1941) President to offer military supplies to nations "vital to the defense of the US"; ended US neutrality (economic war against Germany); Hitler began to sink American ships (limited scale)
Pearl Harbor Japanese bombing of ships in harbor; resulted in FDR's request for declaration of war against Japan; Germany and Italy responded with declarations of war
First American strategy in World War II FDR and Churchhill agreed to defeat Germany first rather than concentrate on Japan
Important World War II Battles Midway (US signal Corps, turning point of war in the Pacific), D-Day (Eisenhowers amphibious invasion of Normandy, led to depletion of German forces), Stalingrad (Russian defeated Germans, save Moscow and Leningrad, turning point in Europe)
Japanese internment Fear of Japanese-Americans as traders, sent off (by law) to internment camps; removal of the deemed threats in military areas
Reasons for US to drop atomic bombs Risk of too many casualties and high costs for hand-to-hand combat/invasion, Japanese surrender unlikely
Yalta Conference (1945) Established world organization; Soviet Union pledged to allow democratic procedures in Eastern Europe; pledge broken, led to Cold War
Potsdam Conference (1945) Decided to punish war crimes, establish programs for denazification of Germany
The Homefront Westward migration of workers (new economic opportunities, especially aircraft industry), high rates of divorce and family/juvenile violence, women encouraged to work in factories, still held inferior to men
Rationing Americans at home reminded to conserve materials in all aspects of life to support the military; resulted in saving up of money to cause economic boom after war
Rosie the Riveter Symbol of women workers during the war
John L Lewis Through CIO, led three coal mine strikes (some of the very few strikes during the time period)
Zoot Suit Riot Racism riots against Mexican laborers (imported for jobs)
Bracero program Brought in Mexicans for temporary jobs, concentrated in Southern CA, given extremely poor working conditions (as they were not American citizens)
A Philip Randoff and the March on Washington Led brotherhood of sleeping car porters: threatened a siege on DC if FDR did not agree to end discrimination in military
Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) Prohibited discrimination in any government related work; increase black employment
President Harry Truman First president to show positive responses of a rights movement; worked heavily on keeping Soviet spread of communism in check
Jackie Robinson First African-American in major-league baseball
Desegregation of Armed Forces (1947) Banned racial discrimination in federal practices; to secure these rights called for desegregation, antilynching, end poll taxes
Dixiecrat, 1948 Fought for old southern way of life (states rights), attempted to gain higher standing within Democratic Party; aimed to deny Truman enough electoral votes to avoid his reelection by nominating Storm Thurmond (SC governor)
Fair Deal Preservation of new deal, attempt at additions; raised minimum wage, public housing, old age insurance extension, agricultural price supports (lowering the farm price)
George Kennan US ambassador to Russia, notified Truman of Soviet ambitions to expand empire and overthrew other political forces; established concern for Soviet policy in Eastern Europe, Germany and the Middle East
Containment Aim to prevent spread of communism
Truman Doctrine Support people oppressed by communism and nondemocratic governments; worked with democratic governments in Greece, Turkey, and Israel
Marshall Plan US provided financial assistance to recover economics in Europe; aimed towards anti-Communist governments in France, Italy, and Germany; Eastern European nations prohibited from receiving help from US
Berlin Airlift Soviets cut Berlin off from the rest of Germany by blockade; US organized airlift to drop supplies into Britain; blockade lifted in May 1949
NATO Response to Berlin crisis, warned Moscow that threats would be answered with force; Warsaw Pact formed by Soviets in response
Soviet atomic bomb September 1949, US no longer held monopoly; two atomic powers