APUSH Terms 214-294

sgrover's version from 2015-04-20 22:57


Question Answer
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Workers unable to escape (locked into factory), all died; further encouraged reform movements for working conditions
Gifford Pinchot Headed Federal division of forestry, contributed to Roosevelt's natural conservation effort
Frederick W Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management Increase working output by standardizing procedures and rewarding those who worked fast; efficiency
Industrial Workers of the World Supported socialist, militant unionists and Socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics, aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of labor, ideas too radical for socialist cause
Big Bill Haywood Leader of IWW, from Western Federation of Miners
Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class Satirized wealthy captains of industry, workers and engineers as better leaders of society
Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life Activist government to serve all citizens (cf. Alexander Hamilton); founded new republic magazine
John Dewey Social ideals to be encouraged in public school (stress on social interaction), learning by doing
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr Law meant to evolve as the society evolves, opposed conservative majority
Booker T. Washington Proponent of gradual gain of equal rights for African-Americans
Atlanta Compromise Speech Given by Booker T. Washington to ease white fears of integration, assuring them that separate but equal was acceptable, ideas challenged by DuBois
WEB Dubois, Souls of Black Folk Opposed Booker T. Washington's accommodation policies, called for immediate equality, formed Niagara movement to support his ideas
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Formed by white progressives, adopted goals of Niagara movement, in response to Springfield race riots
Muckrakers Uncovered the "dirt" on corruption and harsh quality of city/working life; heavily criticized by Theodore Roosevelt; Ida Tarbell (oil companies), David Graham Phillips (Senate), Aschen school (child labor-photography), mass magazines McClure's and Collier's
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle Revealed unsanitary nature of meatpacking industry, inspired meat inspection act and pure food and drug act (1906)
Thomas Nast Political muckracking cartoonist, refused bribes to stop criticism
Robert La Follette Created the Wisconsin idea (as governor of Wisconsin) - regulated railroad, direct primary system, increased corporate taxes, reference library for all lawmakers
Mann Act Made it illegal to transport women across state borders for "immoral purposes," violated by black boxer Jack Johnson (with white woman)
Women's Christian Temperance Union Led by Francis Willard, powerful "interest group" following the Civil War, urged women's suffrage, led to Prohibition
Charlotte Perkins Gilman Women must gain economic rights in order to impact society (cf. Rising divorce rates)
Northern Securities case Northern securities Company (J.P. Morgan and James G Hill - railroads) seen by Roosevelt as "bad" trust, Supreme Court upheld his first trust bust
Theodore Roosevelt First "modern" president, moderate who supported progressivism (at times conservative), bypassed congressional opposition (cf.Jackson), significant role in world affairs
Square Deal Roosevelts plan that aim to regulate corporations (Anthracite coal strike, Department of commerce and labor, Elkins and Hepburn act), protect consumers (meet sanitation), and conserve natural resources (Newlands reclamation act)
Preservationism v. Conservationism Roosevelt and Pinchot sided on conservation rather than preservation (planned regulated use of forest lands for public and commercial uses)
William H Taft Trustbuster (busted twice as many as Roseville), conservation and irrigation efforts, postal savings bank system, Payne Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, cause Republican split)
Bull Moose Party Party formed from Republicans split by Roosevelt, more progressive values, leaving "Republican old guard" to control Republican Party
New Nationalism Federal government to increase power over economy and society by means of progressive reforms, developed by Roosevelt (after presidency)
New Freedom Ideas of Wilson: small enterprise, states' rights, more active government, trustbusting, left social issues up to the states
Woodrow Wilson Democratic candidate 1912, stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction; far less active than Roosevelt, Clayton antitrust act (to enforce Sherman), Child labor act
Federal Reserve Act Created Federal Reserve system, regional banks set up for 12 separate districts, final authority of each bank with the Federal Reserve Board, paper money to be used "Federal Reserve's notes"
Pan Americanism James G Blaine sought to open up Latin American markets to the US; rejected by Latin America due to fear of US dominance and satisfaction with European market
Yellow journalism (Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst) - aimed to excite American Imperialist interest; media bias, subjective representation of events
Jingoism Belligerent nationalism against other threatening nations
Secretary of State John Hay Ex Lincoln secretary; work to gain open door notes acceptance from the major powers
Open DoorPpolicy Sought to eliminate spheres of influence and avoid European monopolies in China; unaccepted by the powers in mind
Spanish-American War (1898) McKinley reluctant; armed intervention to free Cuba from Spain; Roosevelt's "Rough Riders" made attack on Spanish at Cuba
Explosion of USS Maine Meant to provide evacuation opportunity for Americans in Cuba; internal accidental explosion blamed on Spanish mines, leading to Spanish-American war
Platt amendment US would ensure that Cuba would be protected from European powers and maintain a place in Cuban affairs; provided coal and naval station
US acquisitions: Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam ...Granted to US at the end of Spanish-American war; Philippines were captured after treaty, and therefore not part of spoils, but kept as territory with an inevitable movement for independence; Philippines and Hawaii steps towards Asia
Naval Battle in Manila Bay, Philippines Adm. Dewey defeated Spanish initially; American troops (aided by Aguindo's insurgents) captured Manila, leading to annexation
TR medicate Russo-Japanese war Secretly sponsored peace negotiations do as to prevent Japanese or Russian monopoly on Asia; concerned with safety of Philippines
President Theodore Roosevelt Military and naval preparedness
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine US felt it was its duty to "watch out" for the interests of other countries in the Western Hemisphere; provided justification for invasion of Latin America
Panama Canal Needed to protect new Pacific acquisitions, US took over the project from the French after Overcoming Clayton Bulwer Treaty., Treaty (prohibited exclusive control of canal) with the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
Gentleman's Agreement (1908) In response to Japanese discrimination in San Francisco schools; Japanese to stop laborers into US, Californians forbidden to ban Japanese from public schools
Dollar Diplomacy Government would protect America's foreign investments with any force needed; under Pres. Taft
Moral Diplomacy Intervention in Mexican Revolution (Madero overthrew dictator Diaz) to overthrow Madero out of fear of property confiscation, General Huerta (seen as "brute" by Wilson, sought new leader) replaced Madero
Invasion of Mexico, Poncho Villa huerta's enemy, reluctantly supported by US; US. Sought Villa's submission due to terrorism, eventually assassinated; Wilson's policy highly unpopular
Lusitania British passenger liner secretly carrying ammunition sunk by German U-boat, included American passengers
Zimmerman Note Intercepted by Britain; German proposed alliance with Mexico, using bribe of return of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona; Japan included in alliance
Unrestricted submarine warfare Germany announced that it would sink all (including American) ships, attempt to involve US in war
Creel Committee Committee on public information; aim to sell America in the world on Wilson's war goals; propaganda common censorship, "four Minutemen" speeches, "liberty leagues" (spy on community)
War Industries Board Attempted to centralize production of war materials; ineffective due to American desire for a laissez-faire government
Conscription policies Selective service act to require men to register with few exceptions; women and blacks drafted/enlisted, highly successful
Herbert Hoover's Food Administration Relied on voluntary compliance (no formal laws), propaganda; high prices set on commodities to encourage production, prohibition
Wilson's 14 points Public treaties, free-trade, free seas, reduced armament burdens, anti-imperialism, independence to minorities, international organization
League of Nations Foreshadowed in 14 points, hoped to guarantee political independence and integrity of all countries
Great Migration Mass migration northward; mainly blacks migrating from the southern states into the north hoping for less discrimination
Lodge Reservations 14 formal amendments to the treaty for the league of Nations; preserve the Monroe doctrine, Congress desire to keep declaration of war to itself
Isolationism Avoided league of Nations, opposed Latin American involvement
Espionage Act and Sedition Act Fines and imprisonment for aiding the enemy or hindering US military; forbade any form of criticism of the government and military
Schenk vs. U.S. Upheld constitutionality of espionage act; Congress right to limit free speech during times of war
Red Scare (1919) Anti-Communist crusade due to fear of radicalism spurred by Bolshevik rebellion
Palmer Raids Congressional support to raid houses of radicals believed to have connections tocommunism
Red Summer, race riots (1919) Spurred by great migration, large-scale riots, lynchings
Nativism Severe immigration laws to discourage and discriminate against foreigners, believed to erode old-fashioned American values
Birth of a Nation Spawned resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan based on the Klansman
Ku Klux Klan Spread quickly; apposed everything that was not white Anglo-Saxon Protestant, (W ASP) (and conservative), Stevensons faults in jail sentence led to demise
National Origins Act (1924) Reduced quota, reduced numbers from eastern and southern Europe, Asians banned, Canadians and Latin Americans exempt
Sacco and Vanzetti Trial Prejudice jury sentenced them to death, caused riots around the world, new trial denied
Scopes Trial Darwinism (influenced by Jazz age and new scientific ideas) against fundamentalism (the Bible and creationism); John Scopes convicted for teaching Darwinism (defended by Clarence Darrow); Scopes found guilty
Prohibition, rise of organized crime Supported by women and churches, instituted by Volstead Act, lacked enforcement; bootlegging and speakeasies, Al Capone and John Dillinger - gangsters and organized crime (casual breaking of the law)
Frederick W Taylor, Scientific Management Efficient working methods to increase productivity; usually resulted in lower wages (hated by workers), power to managers
Henry Ford's assembly line Mass production of the model T, workers as potential consumers (raise wages), supported other industries and raised employment
Bruce Barton: The Man Nobody Knows Glorification of business, Jesus as a businessman, relationship between religion and manufacturing
Radio New industry, leisure time with family, sports industry stimulated, political advertisements, newscast, broadcasts of music
Equal Rights Amendment Alice Paul; shocked traditionalism, League of Women Voters supported; new organization of women who are now more independent
Flappers Expressed new freedom of women, sexual revolution
Margaret Sanger and birth control Illegal, but widely excepted; with new promiscuity
Jazz Dance music, slave spirituals adapted into improvisation in Ragtime; jazz migrated along with blacks in the great migration
Lost Generation New generation of writers outside of Protestantism, resentment of ideals betrayed by society; Fitzgerald (despise materialism, Great Gatsby), Hemingway (disillusionment, war experience), Lewis (against upper class - Babbit and Mainstreet) Faulkner (string of consciousness), T.S. Eliot
Harlem Renaissance Authors: Langston Hughes, McKay, Zora Neil Hurston, Countee Cullet - praise and expression of black culture of the time
Marcus Garvey, United Negro Improvement Association Back to Africa improved movement for racial pride in separatism; inspired self-confidence in blacks
Charles Lindbergh Considered a hero for his solo crossing of the Atlantic by plane
Washington Disarmament Conference US, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy to reduce Naval tonnage and halt construction for 10 years; US and Japan to respect Pacific territorial holdings, Kellogg branid pact to "outlaw war"
Dawes Plan (1924) To make German reparations for World War I more accessible to Germans; evacuation of troops from Germany, reorganization of Reichsbank, and foreign loans
Conservative policies of Harding and Coolidge Lowering of income taxes for wealthy (trickle-down economics), refusal to create higher prices to help farmers (Mcnary Haugen Bill)
Fordney McCumber Tariff (1922) and Smoot Hawley Tariff (1930) Raise tariffs extremely high on manufactured goods; benefited domestic manufacturers, but limited foreign trade
Teapot Dome scandal Albert fall accused of accepting bribes for access to government oil in Teapot Dome Wyoming
Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce Known as "wartime food czar;" created recreation policies and reintroduced leisure culture and conservation ethic to get Americans escaping the cities and improved tourism
Andrew Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury Introduced the "trickle-down" economic theory in order to promote business and increase money available for speculation
Farm crisis Agricultural depression as a precursor to the depression;unheaded omen of problems in the economic structure (prices too low - too much supply for the demand)