APUSH Terms 168-213

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Question Answer
Andrew Carnegie Achieved an abnormal rise in class system (steel industry), pioneered vertical integration (controlled Mesabie range to ship ore to Pittsburgh), opposed monopolies, used partnership of steel tycoons (Henry Clay Frick as a manager/partner), Bessemer steel process
Standard oil trust Small oil companies sold stock and authority to Rockefeller's standard oil Company (consolidation), cornered world petroleum market
John D Rockefeller Standard oil Company, ruthless business tactics (survival of the fittest)
Vertical and horizontal integration Beginnings of trust (destruction of competition); vertical- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen- Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize the market (highly detrimental)
Sherman antitrust act Forbade restraint of trade did not distinguish good from bad trusts, ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism (waited for Clayton antitrust act)
United States V EC knight company Decision under Sherman antitrust act shot down by Supreme Court-sugar refining was manufacturing rather than trade/ commerce
National labor union Founded by William Sylvis 1866; supported eight hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks
Knights of labor Founded by Uriah Stephens 1869; excluded corrupt and well-off; equal female pay, end to child/convict labor, employer-employee relations, proportional income tax; "bread-and-butter " unionism (higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions)
Terence V. Powderly Knights of labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation. temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
American Federation of Labor Craft unions that left the knights 1886, led by Gompers, women left out of recruitment effort
Samuel Gompers Focused on skilled workers (harder to replace then unskilled), coordinated crafts unions, supported eight hour workday and injury liability
Yellow dog contracts Fearing the rise of labor unions, corporations force new employees to sign and promise not to be part of labor unions
Pinkertons Detectives hired by employers as private police force, often used to end strikes
Chinese exclusion act 1882 Ten-year moratorium on Chinese immigration to reduce competition for jobs (Chinese willing to work for cheap salaries)
Haymarket bombing Bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protesters, caused great animosity in employers for workers' unions
Eugene V Debs Led railroad workers in Pullman strike, arrested; Supreme Court (decision in re Debs) legalized use of injunction (court order) against unions and strikes
Social Darwinism Natural selection applied to human competition, advocated by Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner
Henry George, progress and poverty Single tax on speculated land to ameliorate industrialization misery
Edward Bellamy, looking backwards State run economy to provide conflict free society
Karl Marx, Das Kapital Working-class exploited for profit, proletariat (workers) to revolt and inherit all society
Thomas Edison Electric light, phonograph, mimeograph, Dictaphone, moving pictures
Louis Sullivan Lead architectural movements to create building design that reflected buildings functions, especially in Chicago
Interstate commerce act Created interstate commerce commission to require railroads to publish rates (less discrimination, short/long call), first legislation to regulate corporations, ineffective ICC
Social Gospel movement Stressed role of church and religion to improve city life, led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch and Washington Gladden; influence settlement house movement and Salvation Army
Young men's and young women's Christian Association (YMCA and YWCA) Provided housing and recreation to city youth, imposing Protestant morals, unable to reach out to all all youth
Jane Addams Help lead settlement house movement, cofounded NAACP, condemned war and poverty
Hull house Jane Addams Pioneer settlement house (center for women's activism and social reform) in Chicago
Salvation army Established by "general "William Booth, uniformed volunteers provide food, shelter, and employment to families, attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bands in order to instill middle-class virtues
Declining death rate Sewer systems and purification of water
New immigrants v. old immigrants Old immigrants from Northern and Western Europe came seeking better life; new immigrants came from Southern and Eastern Europe searching for opportunity to escape worse living conditions back home and often did not stay in the US
Cult of domesticity Victorian standards confined women to the home to create an artistic environment as a statement of cultural aspiration
Tammany Hall Democratic political machine in NYC, "supported" immigrants and poor people of the city, who were needed for democratic election victories
Theodore Drieser, sister Carrie, the financier Attacked industrial elite, called for business regulation, publisher refused works breaking with Victorian ideals
Regionalist and naturalist writers Writing took a more realistic approach on the world, regionalist riders focused on local life (Sarah Orne Jewett), naturalist writers focused on economy and psychology (Stephen Crane)
Bland Allison act 1878 Government comprised to buy and coin $2-$4 million a month; government stuck to minimum and inflation did not occur (lower prices); economy grew
Sherman Silver purchase act 1890 Government to buy silver to back money in addition to gold
James G. Blaine Republican candidate for president in 1884, quintessence of spoils system; highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland)
Pendleton civil service act Effectively ended spoils system and established civil service exams for all government positions, under Pres. Garfield
Farmers' alliance movement Southern and midwestern farmers expressing discontent, supported free silver and subtreasury plan (cash advance on future crop- farmers have little cash flow during the year), criticize national Banks
Greenback party Supported expanded money supply, health/safety regulations, benefits for workers and farmers, Granger (farmer) supported
Populist party Emerged from farmers alliance (When subtreasury plan was defeated in Congress), denounced Eastern establishment that suppressed the working classes; Ignatius Donnelly (utopian author), Mary E Lease, Jerry Simpson
Convict Lease System Blacks who went to prison taken out and used for labor in slave-like conditions, enforced southern racial hierarchy
Civil rights cases Civil rights act of 1875 declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court, as the 14th amendment protected people from government infringement of rights and had no effect on private citizens
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court legalized the "separate but equal" philosophy
Munn v. Illinois Private property subject to government regulation when property is devoted to public interest; against railroads
Jim Crow laws Educational and residential segregation; inferior facilities allotted to African-Americans, predominately in south
Coxey's army Coxey and unemployment followers marched on Washington for support in unemployment relief by inflationary public works program
Panic of 1893 8000 businesses collapsed (including railroads); due to stockmarket crash, overbuilding of railroads, heavy farmer loans, economic disruption by labor efforts, agricultural depression; decrease of gold reserves led to Cleveland's repeal of Sherman Silver purchase act
William Jennings Bryan Repeat candidate for president, proponent of silver backing (16:1 platform), cross of gold speech against gold standard; Democratic candidate 1896
Free silver Populist campaign for silver-backed money rather than Gold-backed, believed to be able to relieve working conditions in exploitation of labor