APUSH Age of Jackson 1820-1850 Part 2

sgrover's version from 2015-04-13 23:26


Question Answer
Indian Removal Act Jackson was allowed to relocate Indian tribes in the Louisiana Territory
Five Civilized Tribes Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion
Trail of Tears Cherokee tribe forced to move from southern Appalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma, high death toll
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia first attempt of Cherokees to gain complete sovereign rule over their nation•
Worcester v. Georgia Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes
Spoils System rotation in office; Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy
Kitchen Cabinet Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet
Lowell mill/system young women employed by Lowell's textile company, housed in dormitories
Cotton Gin allowed for faster processing of cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, less need for slaves
Nullification Controversy southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them•
South Carolina Exposition and Protest written by Calhoun, regarding tariff nullification
Bank of the United States destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution•
Pet banks small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank, used until funds were consolidated into a single treasury•
Independent Treasury Bill government would hold its revenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping the funds away from private corporations; "America's Second Declaration of Independence"
Specie paper money; specie circular decreed that the government would not accept specie for government land
Maysville Road Veto vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit on estate
Liberty Party supported abolition, broke off of Anti-Slavery Society
Whig Party believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)
John C. Calhoun opposed Polk's high-handedness, avid Southern slave owner
Marshall Court (all cases) Marbury v. Madison (judicial review), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutional interpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannot control government agencies), Gibbons v. Ogden (interstate commerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contract cannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v .Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties' consent)
Second Great Awakening religious movements, traveling "meetings," rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G. Finney•
Burned-Over District heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions, upstate New York, home to the beginning of Smith's Mormonism movement
Horace Mann worked to reform the American education system, abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix
William Lloyd Garrison editor of The Liberator (strongly abolitionist newspaper calling for immediate abolition of slavery), fought for feminist movement ("Am I not a woman and a sister" picture of slave woman)
Frederick Douglass Runaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips, founder of The North Star
Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 for women's rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
Angelina and Sarah Grimké fought for women's rights and abolition, "Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!"
Dorothea Dix worked towards asylums for the mentally insane, worked alongside Mann
John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community John Noyes, NewYork; utopian society for communalism, perfectionism, and complex marriage
New Harmony first Utopian society, by Robert Owen
Hudson River School American landscape painting rather than Classical subjects
Transcendentalism founded by Emerson, strong emphasis on spiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strong references to nature
Ralph Waldo Emerson in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom),wrote "The American Scholar"
Henry David Thoreau (Walden and On Civil Disobedience) in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two years writing Walden, proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants