App Ex Psych Narrative Behaviour Change Readings

bethdrysdale94's version from 2017-05-14 15:43

Section 1

Question Answer
Meisel and Karlawish 2011: MMR counternarrative exampleScientists can use narrative in at least 2 ways. First is in the form of counternarratives, designed to neutralize stories that promote disproven theories. Take the largely negated theories of a causal link between childhood vaccines and autism. As recounted by Offit in his book on this topic, a celebrity actor claimed that she does not need real science to know that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine triggered her son’s autism: “[My son] is my science,” she stated on television to thunderous audience applause.8 Such narratives, challenging scientists who come to the table (or television studio) armed only with data, often succeed in the court of public opinion and weaken efforts to promote evidence-based health decisions. When scientists encounter stories that promote unscientific approaches to health and health care, they should deploy an evidence-based counternarrative. The story of a mother in San Diego whose infant, too young for the MMR vaccine, became sick after exposure to an unvaccinated child with measles would add persuasive weight in a debate with the actor mentioned above
Meisel and Karlawish 2011: narratives with data presentationscientists present clean version of evidence. Could be backed up by narrative of how evidence is reached which would support controversial data, increase trust and improve translation of evidence for individual use and public policies
Meisel and Karlawish 2011: 2 instances for narrative use First, before public release of results, scientists should discuss with each other the stories of how they reached their conclusions. The more compelling their individual stories and the more the stories coalesce to a final conclusion, the more credibility their recommendations may have in the eyes of the public. In contrast, conflicting narratives suggest challenges in translation and argue for revisiting the process. Second, narratives have been shown to be most helpful for boosting clarity and believability of a health message if recipients identify with characters from the stories.4 Therefore, the stories of individuals (patients, physicians, and scientists) whose experiences relate to the science should be shared when the expert community anticipates confusion or negative reactions to their evidence-based conclusions

Section 2

Question Answer
Falzon et al 2015: overviewThe main purposes of this study were to examine and to compare the effects of two messages promoting physical activity, one narrative and the other informational, on the perceptions and behavioral intentions of cancer patients.
Falzon et al 2015: Methods158 women with breat cancer, read testimony of cancer survivor who had been phasically active, or a content equivalent message composed of expert recommendations about PA, or no message
Falzon et al 2015: Resultssource trust was higher for narrative than expert recs. Self-efficacy and intention were higher in narrative than expert recs AND control. Beliefs about exercise benefits and risks were high and lower respectively in expert recs group than narrative and control
Falzon et al 2015: ConclusionsThe results suggest that narratives may be more effective in improving perceived physical abilities and involvement in physical activity, whereas informational messages seem to be more appropriate to convey the benefits and the absence of risks related to physical activity.

Section 3

Question Answer
Lee et al 2017: why narratives for HPV Cambodian American mothers often have limited English proficiency, poor health literacy, and face cultural barriers which present obstacles to effective health communication (Lee et al., 2014; Lee, Kiang, Tang, et al., 2015; Schyve, 2007). Thus, it can be reasonably inferred that the narrative approach to health communication rather than the alternative informational approach will be more effective in promoting HPV vaccination behaviors among Cambodian American mothers.
Lee et al 2017: Storytelling Narrative Communication TheoryThe Storytelling Narrative Communication theory (Lee et al., 2016) posits that the cultural relevance and inherent logic of storytelling produces changes in the listener's behavior, attitudes, and motivation through the interaction of transportation, identification, and realism. Identification with characters in story increases absorption, reduces counter arguing, and thus enhances the viewer's acceptance of the values and beliefs portrayed in the story
Lee et al 2017: VideosThe storytelling narrative videos, “Save Our Daughters from Cervical Cancer” were developed focused on a series of HPV vaccination-related health messages tailored to each of the identified determinants of HPV vaccination within the targeted population of Cambodian American mothers
Lee et al 2017: Storyteller selectionFour Khmer mothers who have adolescent daughters (both vaccinated and unvaccinated) were selected and invited to be a “star” storyteller. It is important to select storytellers by similarity (Allison et al., 2016; Houston et al., 2011; Fix et al., 2012) since identification with characters in the story increases “homophily” or the perceived similarity between the story's characters and the viewer/audience that enhances their acceptance of the values in the story. Consequently, this may reduce counter-arguing and increase engagement or transportation for the viewer/audience.
Lee et al 2017: Learn More videophysician answering questions about HPV, filled gaps in knowledge from narrative, fulfilled desires of the mothers who had watched the narrative to know more, added extra support to narrative
Lee et al 2017: ConclusionThe intervention developed in the current study took a novel approach to enhance Cambodian American mothers' health knowledge and HPV vaccination decisions by providing a culturally and linguistically appropriate storytelling narrative intervention. The Cambodian American community health leaders stated that the images, characters, and messages in the stories were familiar to them and that the health messages were easy to understand

Section 4

Question Answer
Hartling et al 2009: overviewThe objective of this paper is to describe the development of a story-based intervention for delivery of health evidence to parents of children with croup for use in a randomized controlled trial.
Hartling et al 2009: methodinterviewed parents of croup in ED and drafted stories, edited to include research and health info. developed story booklets
Hartling et al 2009: resultsparticipants felt: > overly sophisticated writing > more character development and health info > felt they could identify with the stories > easier to get information than medical sheets
Hartling et al 2009: challengesstaying true to the story vs being evidence based. - addressing the use of the internet by consumers as a source of health info - widely applicable whilst succinct - story length, reading level, narrative mode, representation of different demographics, illness experiences, graphics and layout