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App Ex Psych Mass Media Readings

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bethdrysdale94's version from 2017-05-12 16:34

Section 1

Question Answer
What does the Elaboration Likelihood Model explain?explains the effects of source, target, message and medium
According to ELB: what are the two ways of processing?central and peripheral processing
Which type of processing: Pay attention to the number, validity and comprehensibility of the argumentscentral
Which type of processing: elaborate on, use high effort, deeply process all argumentscentral
Which type of processing: agreement or counterargumentcentral
Which type of processing: If you care about the message, it matters to you. Leads to attitude and behaviour change that stickscentral
Which type of processing: pays attention to superficial aspect and rule of thumb heuristic of messageperipheral
Which type of processing: used in briefly timed media, ie billboards, commercialsperipheral
Which type of processing: expect british accent, fast talker, attractive, catchy jingle, famous actors, trust the expert, long messages peripheral
Which type of processing: if you dont care about the message youre likely to be distracted and not motivatedperipheral
Which type of processing: superficial and temporary attitude changeperipheral
What are the durabilities of each type of processing?peripheral lasts as long as identification with the message lasts. central depends on the sleeper effect
Definition of attitudeinner thoughts/feelings
Definition of behaviouroutward expression of an attitude
Which is easier to change, attitude or behaviour?Changing attitude is easier than changing behaviour
what is dissonance?when your attitude doesnt match your behaviour
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Section 2

Question Answer
Aboiye at al 2013: overviewmass media effects on physical activity: systematic review of nine prospective cohort studies and before-after studies. 27,601 people, over 8 weeks to 3 years
Aboiye at al 2013:Resultspooled results showed that mass media campaigns had a significant effect on promoting moderate intensity walking, but did not help participants achieve sufficient levels of PA. Campaigns that promoted hysical activity as a "social norm" seemed to be more effective in reducing behaviour.
Aboiye at al 2013: Limitationssmall number of selected studies meant no detection of differences across studies was possible. unable to evaluate dose-response curve for mass media campaigns. Measurement error in assessment of physical activity is possible. Limited only to effects on adults. Conducted in developed countries.
Aboiye at al 2013: details The pooled RRs suggest that a well-designed mass media campaign may increase the likelihood of achieving sufficient walking by 53% which is equivalent to about 80 minutes per week. A recent meta-analysis of prospective studies found that an additional 150 minutes of walking over 5 days led to a 19% reduction in risk of coronary heart disease. Applying this effect size to our results indicates a potential 11% reduction in risk of coronary heart disease following a welldesigned mass media campaign
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Section 3

Question Answer
Kreuter et al 1999: Overviewtailored vs targeted vs personalised info. effectiveness, TAILORED PRINT COMMUNICATION
Kreuter et al 1999: what is tailored infoWe previously defined tailoring as any combination of strategies and information intended to reach one specific person, based on characteristics that are unique to that person, related to the outcome of interest, and derived from an individual assessment. The italicized portion of this definition highlights the two features that distinguish tailored communication from other commonly used approaches: (a) it is assessment-based and (b) its messages are individual-focused. In general, as the level of assessment increases so does the degree of individualization possible in the communication content.
Kreuter et al 1999: classification of 5 approaches to health communication, by level of assessment and nature of content (low to highest individualisation and level of assessment of individuals)generic < personalised generic < targeted < tailored < interpersonal communication
Kreuter et al 1999: why should we use tailored communicationa five-part logic sequence: (a) by tailoring materials, superfluous information is eliminated; (b) the information that remains is more personally relevant to the recipient; (c) people pay more attention to information they perceive to be personally relevant; (d) information that is attended to is more likely to have an effect than that which is not (25); and (e) when attended to, information that addresses the unique needs of a person will be useful in helping them become and stay motivated, acquire new skills, and enact and sustain desired life-style changes
Kreuter et al 1999: does tailoring workFindings suggest that for certain populations, computer-tailored materials can be effective in promoting a range of health-related behaviors, including smoking cessation (49,50), reduced dietary fat consumption (26,27), increased fruit and vegetable consumption (29), mammography (28), and physical activity (51,52). Because it is not the purpose of this paper to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the research literature on the effectiveness of computer-tailored interventions, we refer readers to Skinner et al. in this issue
Kreuter et al 1999: Creating tailored print materials There are five general steps involved in creating tailored print materials: (a) analyzing the problem to be addressed and understanding its determinants; (b) developing an assessment tool to measure a person's status on these determinants; (c) creating tailored messages that address individual variation on determinants of the problem; (d) developing a data base to store participants' responses; and (e) developing algorithms and a computer program that link responses from the assessment to specific tailored messages and creating the final health communication materials
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