App Ex Psych 10

bethdrysdale94's version from 2017-05-16 19:03

Section 1

Question Answer
What is motivation interviewing?directive, client-centred counselling style for eliciting behaviour change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence. Assists movement through stages of change, consists of stage-specific strategies. Non-confrontational
What is ambivalence?> Aware of benefits of activity/danger of inactivity yet continue to be inactive > Express desire to change yet are not sufficiently motivated to change. > can occur, in different guises, at any stage of readiness for change .> MI non-judgementally accepts these conflicts and seeks to explore and resolve the opposing attitudes
5 fundamental principles of motivational interviewingexpress empathy with reflective listening, - develop discrepancy between client goals/values and current problem/behaviour - avoid argumentation and confrontation - roll with resistance rather than opposing it directly - support self-efficacy and optimism for change
topics for behaviour changeimportance (Why, worthwhile?) confidence (how, can i, will i?) readiness (now? other priorities?)
O.A.R.S principle motivational interviewing strategiesOpen ended q's. Affirmations. Reflective listening. Summaries.

Section 2

Question Answer
Open ended questions aboutgood things about taking up exercise, being fitter, "what are the benefits about being more active?" "how will you benefit from being fitter?"
Open ended Q's about the cost of exercise..what do you enjoy that you might need to give up? what changes do you need to make? what would concern you about not having time to exercise?
Affirmations - genuine not patronisingAvoid: "wow i knew you could do this" Use: "You're clearly committed.." "despite last weeks setback you seem to have got back on track.."
Reflective listening is... a Primary way of responding to clients and building empathy. Actively listen, interpret what is said, paraphrase back to client
Summaries are used to...prompt a change in direction of discussion or to close a session. Reinforce to the client that active listening has occurred.

Section 3

Question Answer
Client: PrecontemplationProffessional: Raise Doubt
Client: ContemplationProffessional: Evoke reasons to change
Client: PreparationProffessional: Plan action to change
Client: ActionProffessional: Review steps to change
Client: MaintenanceProffessional: Identify and use strategies to prevent relapse
Client: RelapseProffessional: Assist client to renew interest

Section 4

Question Answer
Gourian at al 2013: Group 1N=28, age M=13, BMI M=29.57. 2xSWLP
Gourian at al 2013: Group 2N=26, same as control except 6 sessions of MI
Gourian at al 2013: resultsGroup 2 had: Greater BMI decrease, Greater PA increase, Scored higher on key SDT variables

Section 5

Question Answer
O'Halloran et al 2014: overviewMeta-analysis of RCTs. 11 RCTs on clinical population.
O'Halloran et al 2014: resultsMI can lead to modest improvements in physical acitivity in people with chronic health conditions and there may be benefit in incorporating it into clinical practice
O'Halloran et al 2014: key findingseffects of MI may be greater if clinician adheres to the core components of MI

Section 6

Question Answer
Martins&McNeill 2009: issues with training, education and practice of MIcrucial to effectiveness of MI however very costly, varied and underreported. Snapshot workshops have taken place with no follow up. MI is best when integrated with other theories (TTM)
Martins&McNeill 2009: issues with treatment integrityhow faithful are MI interventions to original principles? "fidelity measures" are only successful to a point.
Martins&McNeill 2009: issues with treatment dose and deliveryhow many MI sessions are needed to be effective? some studies suggest relatively few sessions for significant behaviour change but other studies document the opposite
Martins&McNeill 2009: RCT study critiquessmall samples, mixed intervention groups, lack of treatment control groups, combined with other interventions (good practically but not scientifically)