APA continued

sandyle909's version from 2016-09-01 01:08

Section 1

Question Answer
Color / PigmentationFlesh - same tone as surrounding skin
Erythematous - variable shades of red (pink, salmon, coppery, reddish blue)
Violaceous - light violet
Black or blue-black
Palpation of LesionsConsistency
Depth of lesion
Deviation in temperature
ABCDs of Malignant MelanomaA- asymmetry
B- borders (irregular)
C- color (variegated)
D- diameter >6mm
E- elevation

Section 2

Question Answer
Types of Lesions: Primary v SecondaryPrimary- arise from previously normal skin, key to accurate diagnosis
Secondary- arise from changes in primary lesions. usually d/t scratching and/or infection
Grouped/ combination
Primary Skin Lesions- arise from ________ ?Circumscribed, flat, non-palpable (Macule, Patch)
Superficial elevations by free fluid (Vesicle, Bulla, Pustule)
Palpable, elevated solid masses (Papule, Plaque, Nodule, Tumor, Wheal)
Maculecircumscribed color change, flat, non-palpable
<1 cm in diameter
Macule examples: Measles, freckles, petechiae
Patchflat, non-palpable
Irregular shape
>1cm in diameter
Patch examples: Mongolian spots, Cafe au last spots, Port wine stain, Vitiligo
PapuleUp to 1 cm
palpable, firm, circumscribed, colors (flesh colored, red, brown), may be confluent and form plaques
Papule examples: Molluscum contagiosum, Warts, Nevi
Plaque> 1 cm in diameter
elevated, firm, rough
Plaque examples: Psoriasis, Eczema
Nodule> 0.5 cm
Deeper and firmer than a papule, usually round
Nodule examples: Lipomas, skin CA (Malignant melanoma, basel cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinomas)
Tumor a large nodule, deeper in the dermis
Tumore examples: Hemangioma, Benign tumor
Know the difference between nodule and tumorNodule - deeper and firmer than a papule
Tumor - large nodule, but DEEPER in the dermis
WhealIrregular, transient, superficial edema
Wheal examples: Mosquito bites, Hives (urticaria), allergic reaction
Vesiclewell-circumscribed, filled with serous fluid
Up to 1.0 cm
Vesicle example: Herpes simples "dew drops on rose petals"
Bullawell-circumscribed, filled with serous fluid
Greater than 1.0 cm
Bulla examples: 2nd degree burns, Blisters, Hemorraghic bullae (characteristic of Herpes Zoster)
Pustuleelevated, superficial, wel-circumscribed, filled with pus
Pustule examples: Acne, Impetigo, Fire ant bites

Section 3

Question Answer
Secondary Skin Lesions - arise from ____________ ?Result from changes in primary skin lesions
Loss of skin surface (Erosion, Ulcer, Fissure)
Material on the skin surface (Crust, Scale)
Miscellaneous lesions (Lichenification, Atrophy, Excoriation, Scar, Burrow)
Erosionloss of superficial epidermis, surface moist/doesn't bleed, heals without scarring
Erosion examples: Ruptured varicella, Eczema
Ulcer loss of epidermis and dermis, heals with scarring
Ulcer examples: Stasis ulcer, Decubitus
Fissurelinear crack/break from the epidermis to the dermis
Fissure examples: Eczema, Tinea pedis, Anngular cheilitis
Crust dried residual of serum, pus, or blood
Crust examples: Impetigo, Tinea capitis, Kerion (raised boggy secondarily infected fungal lesion of hair)
Scale a thin flake of exfoliated epidermis
Scale examples: Dandruff, Psoriasis, Seborrheic dermatitis
Excoriation abrasion or scratch mark, may be linear/rounded, usually d/t scratching
Excoriation examples: Scabies, Atopic dermatitis, Dry skin
Lichenification thickening and roughening of the skin, increased visibility of skin markings
Lichenification examples: Atopic dermatitis, Chronic dermatitis
Atrophythinning of skin with loss of normal skin markings, skin looks shinier and more translucent
Atrophy examples: Stretch marks/striae, Topical steroid use

Section 4

Question Answer
Vascular Lesions
Petechiae deep red/purple-red lesions <0.5 cm
round, irregular, NON-BLANCHABLE, variable distribution
represents blood outside of vessels
seen: infections and bleeding disorders
Purpura deep red/purple-red lesions >0.5 cm
(same as petechiae, just >0.5 cm)
Ecchymosis purple lesions of variable size (fade: green, yellow, brown)
round, oval, irregular borders
represents blood outside of vessels d/t trauma or bleeding disorders
Spider Angiomasfiery red lesions
small - up to 2 cm
central body with surrounding erythema and radiating legs
BLANCH with pressure
on face, neck, arms, upper trunk
seen: liver disease, pregnancy, may be normal
Cherry Angiomasbright-red papules, red, flat, or raised, non-pulsatile, seen on the trunk, do not blanch, associated with aging
1-3 mm
Telangectasiasfine, irregular red lines secondary to dilation of capillaries
seen: basal cell carcinoma, sun-damaged skin, rosacea
Hemangioma red, irregular lesion secondary to dilation of dermal capillaries
starts as macular patch, progress to plaque/ nodule
Hemangioma example: "strawberry hemangioma"
Rosaceaerythematous papule, nodules, and pustules on nose, chin, and cheeks bilaterally

Section 5