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mexicancat's version from 2016-09-09 10:42

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RenaissanceThe "rebirth" of classical culture that occurred in Italy between c. 1350 and c. 1550; also, the earlier revivals of classical culture that occurred under Charlemagne and in the twelfth century.
PetrarchBeen called the father of Italian Renaissance humanism.
Lorenzo VallaBrought up in Rome and educated in both Latin and Greek.
Leonardo BruniBecame an enthusiastic pupil of the Byzantine scholar Manuel Chrysoloras, who taught in florence from 1396 to 1400.
HumanismAn intellectual movement in Renaissance Italy based on the study of Greek and Roman classics.
SecularismIs a belief system that rejects religion, or the belief that religion should not be part of the affairs of the state or part of public education.
Classics/AntiquityAncient Greece and Rome. It encompasses the study of ancient languages, literature, philosophy, history, and archaeology.
IndividualismEmphasis on and interest in the unique traits of each person.
The MediciAn Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
Civic HumanismAn intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that saw Cicero, who was both an intellectual and a statesman, as the ideal and held that humanists should be involved in government and use their rhetorical training in the service of the state.
Vernacular The everyday language of a region, as distinguished from a language used for special purposes.
Patronage of the ArtsRefers to the support that kings, popes and the wealthy have provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors.
Johannes GutenbergWas a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.
Printing PressWas invented in the Holy Roman Empire by the German Johannes Gutenberg around 1440, based on existing screw presses.
Balance-of-PowerA distribution of power among several states such that no single nation can dominate or interfere with the interests of another.
SavonarolaWas an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence. He was known for his prophecies of civic glory, the destruction of secular art and culture, and his calls for Christian renewal.
Northern Artistic RenaissanceStyle might be described as the very singular result of a blending of Late Gothic art, contemporary ideas about observation, and Reformation ideology
High Renaissance This final stage of Renaissance art, which flourished between 1480 and 1520. The increasing importance of Roman as a new cultural center of the Italian Renaissance.
New Monarchs The governments of France, England, and Spain at the end of the fifteenth century, whose rulers succeeded in reestablishing or extending centralized royal authority, suppressing the nobility, controlling the church, and insisting on the loyalty of all peoples living in their territories.
Political CentralizationPolitical centralization is a process where political power is concentrated in the hands of one ruling family or political party.
Holy Roman EmpireFrederick I planned to get his chief revenues from Italy as the center of a "holy empire"
The HapsburgsThe House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most influential royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Hapsburg between 1438 and 1740.
War of RosesBroke out in the 1450s. This civil war pitted the ducal house of Lancaster, whose symbol was a red rose, against the ducal house of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
The TudorsTudor dynasty. Worked to reduce internal discussion and establish a strong monarchical government.
Star Chamber (Latin: Camera stellata) was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late 15th century to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters.
The ValoisWas a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589.
Louis XI, the SpiderKnown as the Spider because of his wily and devious ways. The process of developing a French territorial state was greatly advanced by King Louis XI.
TailleA tax usually on land or property, without any further approval.
Concordant of Bologna1516), marking a stage in the evolution of the Gallican Church, was an agreement between King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X that Francis negotiated in the wake of his victory at Marignano in September 1515.
Isabella and Ferdinand of SpainThey were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile; on marriage they were given a papal dispensation to deal with consanguinity by Sixtus IV.
ReconquistaIn Spain, the reconquest of Muslim lands by Christian rulers and their armies.
InquisitionA formal court whose job it was to ferret out and try heretics.
Nobles of the Sword and Robe It was originally the knightly class, owing military service, in return for the possession of feudal landed estates. While Nobles of the Robe pay to earn their Nobility.
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