AP World History - CH 1 - Nature, Humanity, and History, to 3500 B.C.E

celine's version from 2018-09-11 16:59

Section 1

Question Answer
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and the consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants and sharecroppers were forcibly expelled.agricultural revolution (eighteenth century)
The several extinct species of humanlike primates that existed during the Pleistocene era (genus Australopithecus).australopithecines
The ability to walk upright on two legs, characteristic of hominids.bipedalism
Socially transmitted patterns of action and expression. Material culture refers to physical objects, such as dwellings, clothing, tools, and crafts. Culture also includes arts, beliefs, knowledge, and technology.culture
The biological theory that, over time, changes occurring in plants and animals, mainly as a result of natural selection and genetic mutation, result in new species.evolution
People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects.foragers
Geological era that occurred between ca. 2 million and 11,000 years ago. As a result of climate shifts, large numbers of new species evolved during this period, also called the Pleistocene epoch. (See also Holocene.)Great Ice Age
The study of past events and changes in the development, transmission, and transformation of cultural practices.history
The geological era since the end of the Great Ice Age about 11,000 years ago.Holocene
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.Holy Roman Empire
The biological family that includes humans and humanlike primates.hominid
An extinct human species. It evolved in Africa about 2 million years ago.Homo erectus
The first human species (now extinct). It evolved in Africa about 2.5 million years ago.Homo habilis
The current human species. It evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago. It includes archaic forms such as Neanderthals (now extinct) and all modern humans.Homo sapiens
Structures and complexes of very large stones constructed for ceremonial and religious purposes in Neolithic times.megaliths
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). It follows the Paleolithic period.Neolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.Paleolithic
The historical period characterized by the production of tools from stone and other nonmetallic substances. It was followed in some places by the Bronze Age and more generally by the Iron Age.Stone Age