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AP Psychology - Social Psychology - Key Terms

celine's version from 2018-09-19 18:16

Section 1

Question Answer
Also called companionate love; the type of love that occurs when individuals desire to have the other person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person. affectionate love
An unselfish interest in helping someone else.altruism
Beliefs or opinions about people, objects, and ideas.attitudes
Views people as motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior. attribution theory
The concept that individuals who observe an emergency help less when someone else is present than when they are alone. bystander effect
A concept developed by Festinger that refers to an individual's motivation to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts.cognitive dissonance
Involves a change in a person's behavior to coincide more with a group standard. conformity
Occurs when being part of a group reduces personal identity and the sense of responsibility.deindividuation
An unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because he or she is a member of that group.discrimination
Giving to another person to ensure reciprocity, to gain self-esteem, to present oneself as powerful, competent, or caring, or to avoid social and self-censure for failing to live up to normative expectations. egoism
States that there are two ways to persuade--by a central route and by a peripheral route. elaboration likelihood model
The tendency to favor one's own ethnic group over other groups. ethnocentrism
The tendency for observers to overestimate the importance of traits and underestimate the importance of situations when they seek explanations of a person's behavior.fundamental attribution error
The solidification and further strengthening of a position as a consequence of a group discussion. group polarization effect
Involves impaired decision making and avoidance of realistic appraisal to maintain group harmony. groupthink
The term given to the public or layperson's conception of which personality traits go together in an individual. implicit personality theory
Involves acting in a way to present an image of oneself as a certain type of person, which might or might not be who one really is. impression management (self-presentation)

Section 2

Question Answer
The influence other people have on us because we want to be right. informational social influence
The influence that other people have on us because we seek their approval or to avoid their disapproval. normative social influence
Behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority.obedience
An unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group. prejudice
The tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by individual group members. risky shift
Also called passionate love; the type of love that has strong components of sexuality and infatuation and often predominates in the early part of a love relationship. romantic love
Individuals' attention to the impressions they make on others and the degree to which they fine-tune their performances accordingly. self-monitoring
Bem's theory about the connection between attitudes and behavior; stresses that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior. self-perception theory
Occurs when an individual's performance improves because of the presence of facilitation
Refers to the way we define ourselves in terms of group memberships. social identity
Tajfel's theory that when individuals are assigned to a group, they invariably think of it as an identity theory
Each person's tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced monitoring. social loafing
The study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people. social psychology
A generalization about a group's characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another.stereotype