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AP Psychology - CH 9 - States of Consciousness Part 2 - The Princeton Review

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celine's version from 2018-09-16 22:33

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a temporary state of heightened relaxation and suggestibility during which some (not all) people are able to become so focused that they experience imaginary happenings as if they were real. Hypnosis is not some trans-like, magical state in which people will engage in behaviors that are completely against their "normal, non-hynotized" will. People often believe that a hypnotist can make you do things you would never do, like take your clothes off and run around a crowded room naked. If you would not do this when you are not hypnotized, then you would not do it when you are hypnotized. However, if there is some part of you that would....well then, that may be a different story.Hypnosis
a theory of hypnosis that was developed by Ernest Hilgard. Hilgard asserted that, during hypnosis, the conscious mind dissociates from what happens during hypnosis. Hilgard also introduced the concept of a "hidden observer" in hypnosis, meaning that part of the mind is aware of what is happening during hypnosis even if the hypnotized individual is not consciously aware of this.Neodissociative Theory
theory which assumes that a separate consciousness is formed in an individuals mind during hypnosis which is capable of observing the individual. This hidden observer during hypnosis is able to observe themselves and their pain without having to directly experience any negative feelings themselves. Patients who are being analgesically hypnotized and are 'under' reporting not pain when asked if a hidden part of them could feel their pain. After the patient was asked about the hidden observer the patient begins to report pain.The hidden observer theory by Ernest Hilgard
statements or commands given to people while under hypnosis that the person acts on when in a full waking state. This is sometimes used to help people achieve goals such as losing weight or stopping an addiction or other unwanted behavior. These statements need to be in a positive form and not be negative. For example, the statement, "You will no longer have nightmares" is a negative statement because it states what is not wanted. On the other hand, "You will sleep peacefully with pleasant dreams," is a positive statement because it states what is wanted. Statements should also be a behavior that the person wants because a person will resist any compulsion (no matter if it is under hypnosis or not) if he or she does not want to do it. Likewise, hypnosis cannot force someone do anything against their moral code.Posthypnotic Suggestion
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow down body functions. Many people think that alcohol is not a depressant and actually makes them have more fun. However, what alcohol does is lower inhibitions, so you may act in ways you otherwise would not. Also, it diminishes your senses - makes you less alert, less attentive, less "sharp", essentially depressing the nervous system.Depressants
drugs that arouse or excite the nervous system and speed up bodily processes. Some types of stimulants include nicotene (cigarettes), caffeine (coffee, tea, etc.), and cocaine. As you can see, there are both legal and illegal types of stimulants, but both affect the body and nervous system.Stimulants
a class of drug derived from barbituric acid that is often used for medical purposes as a sedative and/or hypnotic. The effects barbiturates produce are similar to alcohol, causing feelings of depression, sleepiness, impaired judgment, and reduced inhibitions. Barbiturates fall under the "depressant" drug class and can be very addictive. One example you are probably familiar with is Pentothal, also known as truth serum. This barbiturate (and the reason people refer to it as truth serum) is because it produces a drunken-like state during which people are less inhibited and more likely to tell the truth.Barbiturates
a medicinal drug taken to reduce tension or anxiety.tranquilizer
an intervention that is designed to reduce anxiety. Medications used for this are psychoactive in nature and are referred to anxiotropics that are sometimes referred to as minor tranquilizers. This was to differentiate them from the "major" tranquilizers such as the neuroleptics or antipsychotics. Examples of anxiolytic medications include Xanax and Valium. Anxiolytics are not only medications. Light therapy is also sometimes effective in the treatment of anxiety. Alcohol, while feeling like an anxiolytic at first, can later become an anxiogenic (anxiety causing) substance.Anxiolytic
a type of stimulant that speeds up bodily processes, and includes caffeine (coffee, tea, soda), nicotene (cigarettes), and cocaine. Some of the effects include increased heart rate, increased respiration, reduced appetite, and increased energy. Many modern-day "energy drinks" contain a lot of caffeine to give you all this energy.Amphetamines
traditionally a term for a drug with psychoactive properties that has a sedative effect, reduces pain, and dulls the senses. Narcotic is most commonly used to refer to opiates like heroin, morphine, and other opiate based drugs. The term narcotic is also used in a legal context to mean a psychoactive substance that is prohibited or restricted by the government. For example, marijuana and LSD are not narcotics in the traditional sense but are classified as such by some states.Narcotic
psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs that distort perceptions and produce sensory images (i.e., hallucinations) although there are no sensory stimuli that should produce such images.Hallucinogens
an emotional need for a drug or substance that has no underlying physical need. For example, people who stop smoking recover physically in a short time. The emotional need for nicotine, however, is much more difficult to overcome. They continually think they need the nicotine to stay calm even though there is no physical need. The drug for the addict is similar to what a security blanket would be for a child (or some adults).Dependence
When you take medications or drugs your body begins to get used to the drug. As a result, you may need to take more and more of it in order to get the same effects. This reduced effect of the drug is tolerance - your body is getting used to the drug causing a reduction in its effectiveness. In some cases, psychologists require patients to go without medications or take breaks from their medications (drug holidays) in order to reduce tolerance and maintain its effectiveness.Tolerance
When an organism (does not have to be a human; can be another type of animal) becomes addicted to a substance, and then they are prevented from having that substance for an extended period of time, they go through a period of withdrawal. This period of withdrawal involves feelings of discomfort and distress. For example, a person addicted to cocaine may experience long periods of nausea, vomiting, cold sweats, headaches, mood swings, and other very uncomfortable feelings. Both physiological and psychological aspects are involved in withdrawal.Withdrawal
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