AP Psychology - CH 9 - States of Consciousness Part 1 - The Princeton Review

celine's version from 2018-09-16 22:12

Section 1

Question Answer
refers to our awareness of our own mental processes, such as our thoughts, feelings, and sensations. It is possible that we are the only beings on this planet that have this type of self awareness or level of consciousness and the ability to introspect, or look inward and examine these processes. For example, if you are angry, you can try to understand your anger, why you are angry, what that anger feels like, etc. But can a cat?Consciousness
----------------- is the awareness people have of themselves and the environment around them.Consciousness
a key figure in the study of consciousness, believed that consciousness consisted of a steady stream of thoughts, emotions, and perceptions.William James
William James referred to consciousness as the of thought
The cognitive psychologist Robert Sternberg refers to consciousness as a ---------- that we create in order to adapt the world.mental reality
The --------- commonly refers to automatic processes, such as breathing or the beating of heart. unconscious level
The ------------ contains information that is available to consciousness but is not always in consciousness.preconscious level
Consciousness starts from ------------------, where we are very aware of what we are doing, and moving on to --------------, where we perform tasks mechanically, such as brushing our teeth.controlled processing, automatic processing

Section 2

Question Answer
----------- is a recurring state of relaxation that is characterized by an altered state of consciousness, inhibited sensory activity, muscular inhibition, and severely reduced interaction with outside entities.Sleep
----------- is a naturally occurring compound found in the body that has many vital functions; maintaining the circadian rhythm (sleep/wake cycles), light dependence, antioxidant functions, support of the immune system, and dreaming. Melatonin
A --------- is a visual, verbal or physical illusion that a person sees, hears or feels and mistakes for reality. These occur while under the influence of a substance; illegal drugs or combinations of drugs, or as a result of some mental illnesses. These illusions range from benign (harmless, but confusing) to frightening or even demanding (command hallucinations) where a person may believe that they are receiving instructions to harm themselves or others. Hallucinations associated with mental illness can often be controlled through appropriate medications.Hallucination
An ---------- is a sensory distortion that can fool a person's senses. Illusions can involve any of the senses, but visual (optical) illusions are the best understood by science. For instance, if a person is watching a magician perform it can truly appear that the magician is doing things that are impossible. Illusions occur when a situation distorts a person's capacity for depth and motion perception and perceptual constancy. illusion
----------- are what people often refer to as your body's internal, biological clock. The typical human circadian rhythm occurs on a cycle of approximately 24 hours. However, the clock is not really functioning on time, but on body temperature. It is just that body temperature fluctuates on somewhat of a regular type of schedule, and so many people often believe that the circadian rhythms are time oriented instead of body temperature oriented. For example, your body temperature begins to increase in the morning (as you wake and start your day), then gets higher during the day while you are active, and begins to drop during the evening, producing feelings of fatigue and preparing for sleep.Circadian rhythms
a recording of the electrical waves of activity that occur in the brain, and across its surface. Electrodes are placed on different areas of a person's scalp, filled with a conductive gel, and then plugged into a recording device. The brain waves are then attracted by the electrodes, travel to the recording device and then amplified so that they can be more easily seen and examined. The EEG recording can be used to examine a variety of brain functions including sleep (the different stages of sleep) and different psychological disorders.Electroencephalogram (EEG)
----------, sometimes also called the beta rhythm, is the frequency of the electrical activity in the brain that falls between 12 and 30 Hz and is the state that is associated with normal waking consciousness. These brain waves are classified as “low” and “high” amplitudes. When the mind is busy, active or anxious the low amplitude beta waves show up with multiple and varying frequencies.Beta Waves
---------- are a type of brain wave that occur when a person is relaxed, but still awake. Typically occur when you are falling asleep, as you pass from wakefulness into sleep (from wake into stage 1 sleep).Alpha waves
------------ are a frequency of electric wavelength that is produced by the brain. It can be measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG) either directly from the brain or through the use of electrodes that are attached to the scalp. One form of theta wave known as the hippocampal theta rhythm is a very strong signal that has been measured in many species of mammals. Cortical theta rhythms are lower frequency and have been recorded only in humans.Theta waves
A ------------ (also referred to as sigma bands or sigma waves) is a sudden burst of oscillatory brain activity that is generated in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (hyperlink?). This activity burst consists of 12-14-Hz brainwaves that occur for at least 0.5 seconds during stage 2 sleep (hyperlink?). This activity is readily visible on an EEG (Electroencephalogram) machine. Sleep spindles are believed to represent time periods where the brain is inhibiting mental process in order to keep the sleeper quiet and in a tranquil state. These sleep spindles, along with the associated K-complexes(hyperlink?), are characteristics of the onset of stage 2 sleep which typically occur during the early stages of sleep.sleep spindle
------------ waves are a type of EEG (electroencephalogram) waveform. They occur during stage 2 of NREM (Non-REM) sleep and are more frequently seen in the early stages of sleep. K-complex waves are considered the "largest event seen in a healthy human EEG." K-Complex waves are believed to have two functions. The first is the suppression of cortical arousal to dream stimuli thereby keeping the brain from signaling "danger" to the body. The function of suppression is important in ensuring that the body does not react to dream imagery. Imagine some of the scariest dreams that you have ever had and how you might have reacted had your reactions not been suppressed. The second function is believed to help with memory consolidation which are processes that stabilize memory traces after their inception.K-Complex
A ------------ is a type of brain wave that is large (high amplitude) and slow (low frequency), and is most often associated with slow wave sleep (stages 3 and 4; often referred to as deep sleep). Delta waves, like other brain waves, are measured using an electro-encephalogram (EEG).delta wave
There are two types of sleep, REM and NREM (non-REM). REM, which is also known as paradoxical sleep, stands for ------------- and occurs in cycles every 60-90 minutes througout your sleep period. This means that every 60-90 minutes you enter a REM stage during which you have rapid eye movements and your muscles become almost paralyzed (this is why it's called paradoxical sleep - the rest of your body is active but your muscles are inactive). The majority of dreams occur in REM sleep, but not all of them.Rapid Eye Movement
Discovered that the eyes move vigorously during the REM stage.Aserinsky and Kleitman
another term for activated sleep, deep sleep, desynchronized sleep, rapid eye-moyement or REM sleep, para sleep, and rhombencephalic sleep. Since dreaming occurs almost exclusively during this sleep state, it is also called dreaming sleep or D-state. During paradoxical sleep your brain is very active, and your eyes move in a sharp, back and forth motion as opposed to a slower, more rolling fashion that occurs in other stages of sleep. However, even though your eyes are moving a lot and your brain is active, your muscles are in a state of almost complete paralysis. That's why it's paradoxical sleep--you're asleep, your brain is active and your muscles are inactive.Paradoxical Sleep
Sleep researcher who studied the effects of the deprivation of REM sleep and his study explained the REM reboundWilliam Dement
When you are sleep deprived you lose out on two types of sleep, REM and NREM (non-REM). Typically when you have a chance to fall asleep after sleep deprivation you have a tendency to get more REM sleep than you would normally get. This is your body's way of trying to catch up on its REM sleep.REM Rebound

Section 3

Question Answer
Abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep. They include insomnia, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea.Dyssomnias
a type of sleep disorder in which the person has trouble in one of the following areas of sleep: falling asleep, staying asleep throughout the night, or not being able to fall back asleep after a disturbance/awakening. Insomnia
a sleep disorder where the affected individual falls asleep without warning. A person with narcolepsy can fall asleep while driving or while filming their family on vacation. The inability to control their sleep obviously causes challenges in their everyday lives.Narcolepsy
a sleep disorder in which the person's muscles become so relaxed that the airways become blocked and the person has trouble breathing and actually stops breathing momentarily). These people tend to snore a lot. The big problem here is that the person is not getting enough oxygen. Each time they stop breathing their blood oxygen level drops until it gets so low it wakes them mometarily (usually not noticed by the sleeper). This cycle (stop breathing and then waking) can happen hundreds of times a night. In addition to dangerously low blood oxygen level, the person can't get enough slow-wave sleep so they usually feel tired and complain of poor sleep.Sleep Apnea
the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby less than a year old.Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
a parasomnia, a disorder in which disruptions or abnormalities in the nervous system occur during sleep. It is the phenomenon of a person walking, talking, and engaging in physical activities without mentally awakening from a sleep state. This occurs when a person arises from a low wave state of sleep and performs actions that are normally engaged in while awake. While relatively harmless if limited to sitting up in bed, walking to the bathroom, or even cleaning it does not present a problem. However, it can be very harmful if the patient engages in hazardous activities such as cooking, swimming, or running. As a matter of fact there have been deaths attributed to the victim's jogging while asleep. There have also been court cases where a defendant has claimed that they committed murder while sleepwalking. Sleepwalking is fairly common in young children, but also occurs in teenagers and adults when they are extremely tired and/or under the influence of sleep medication.Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism
a condition in which an individual repeatedly sleep-walks. In Psychology, it is classified as a dissociative disorder, which also includes amnesia, fugue, and multiple personality disorders. Somnambulism is now thought to be a relatively benign disorder, and is usually not treated. However, there is a risk that the person could be injured accidentally (walking into things, falling down stairs, etc.) during sleep walking.Somnambulism
According to Freud, our dreams are important and meaningful in understanding the causes of our problems, hidden issues, and painful issues we can't face during wakefulness. Freud identified two types of content in our dreams; latent content and manifest content. Manifest content is all the parts of the dream that we remember (the actual content). It's not the stuff we associate with our dreams, but the actual story lines of the dreams.Manifest Content
According to Freud, dreams have two types of content, each of which contains different meanings to the dreams. One of these type of content is latent content, which is the underlying, more hidden, but true meaning of a dream (as opposed to the manifest content). Freud believed that the latent content was somehow censored by the subconscious which was a way to protect us from the real meanings of the dreams. This was necessary because the dream content may be difficult for people to deal with, so people disguise the real meaning. However, Freud believed that when people were in conflict, if he could uncover or get to the latent content, then he could identify the person's problem and resolve their conflict.Latent Content
a neurobiological theory of dreams. First proposed by Harvard University psychiatrists John Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley in 1977, the hypothesis suggests that dreams are created by changes in neuron activity that activates the brainstem during REM sleep. In other words, as the body and brain cycles through the day and night, the chemicals that activate the nerves of the brainstem shift and change. As they change, they trigger brain activity that activates memories that come to the surface during periods of the light REM sleep that we all experience.Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
the term used for thinking or thought processes that are specifically aimed at finding solutions to specific problems. This process continues on a spectrum from conceiving an idea through accomplishing a goal by means of a set of mental operations.Problem Solving
a vivid and disturbing dream that happens during Rapid Eye Movement (REM) stage of sleep. This kind of dream often results in feelings of terror and extreme distress. Nightmares are more common in children rather than in adults. They may be caused by a multitude of factors, including stress, sickness, sleep deprivation, having a meal clost to bedtime, or may come about as a side effect of certain medications.Nightmare
A disorder that interrupts your sleep. Individuals wake overcome by fear and an increased heart and respiratory rate. Unlike nightmares, night terrors do not occur in REM and there is no recollection of a bad dream.Night Terrors