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AP Psychology - CH 8 - Sensation & Perception Part 3 - The Princeton Review

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celine's version from 2018-09-15 23:00

Section 1

Question Answer
known as "small chunk" processing and suggests that we attend to or perceive elements by starting with the smaller, more fine details of that element and then building upward until we have a solid representation of it in our minds. If you're the type of person who understands concepts and ideas by starting with the details and then working your way up to the main idea of overall concept, then you're a bottom-up processor. Opposite of this is Top-Down Processing.Bottom-Up Processing
known as "large chunk" processing and states that we form perceptions by starting with the larger concept or idea and then working our way down to the finer details of that concept or idea. If you're the type of person who learns new ideas and concepts by starting first with the high-level aspects and then working your way down to the fine details, then you're a top-down processor. Opposite of Bottom-Up Processing.Top-Down Processing
refers to the sense of sight and the information that is taken in through the eyes. However, given the wide-ranging and complex nature of the Integral Theory, this actually refers to incompleteness of what is perceived by the eyes and relayed to the mind without being integrated into the totality of existence.Visual Perception
Cues of depth that can be detected by one eye instead of two. For example, size is a monocular clue. One doesn't need two eyes to tell how large an object is, and because of its size, how close it is perceived to be.Monocular depth cues
perceptual clue which allows you to determine how close objects are to an object of known size. Sometimes our perceptions are faulty. Humans use relative size to judge the size of the moon. This is why the moon seems bigger and closer when it is near the horizon than when it is high in the sky. We use buildings, trees and other objects of known size to make judgements about the size and closeness of the moon. When the moon is higher in the sky there are no known objects or frame of references to judge the moon's closeness, and thus, appears smaller and farther away. This is called the lunar illusion.Relative Size
monocular cue in which there is a gradual change in appearance of objects from coarse to fine - some objects appear closer because they are coarse and more distinct, but gradually become less and less distinct (and more fine) which makes the objects appear to get further and further away. For example, if you look at a photograph of a crowd of people, the people that were closer to the camera are represented in the picture with more coarse and distinct features. But to make the people who were further away actually appear further away in the photo, they are represented by less distinct and finer features.Texture gradient
visual signal that an object is closer than the ones behind it because the closer object covers part of the farther object. For example, you know that your keyboard is closer than your desk because you see the desk around the keyboard. Interposition
visual term that refers to the eye's sense of depth and distance perception. This is why two identical items will appear to vary in size with the amount of distance involved and why roads appear to narrow with distance. Linear Perspective
Imagine that you were standing at the head of the railroad tracks. The railroad tracks start as two perfectly parallel lines. You notice that the further away from you the tracks are, the closer they get to each other. It appears as if they meet each other in the distance, although you know that by definition it is not possible for parallel lines to intersect. The point where the parallel lines appear to meet is called the --------.vanishing point
A -------- is any depth cue that can be processed by using one eye alone. This is in contrast to -------- that require the use of both eyes to perceive distance and depth. monocular cue, binocular cues
When looking at an object in your hand you can discern detailed information about the object and it appears clear. When the same object is moved to a distance it appears fuzzy and blurry. You are unable to discern the fine details about the object and the colors may appear different. This is -------- and it is a way for our vision systems to convey how distant and object is.aerial perspective
occurs in vision and is when objects at a distance are blurred, less detailed, and lighter in color than when they are nearby. It is a monocular cue which is used for depth perception, which is used to judge how far away objects are. Monocular cues are named because they can occur only using one eye. aerial perspective
perceptual clue that explains, why less distinct, fuzzy images appear to be more distant.relative clarity
provides perceptual cues about difference in distance and motion, and is associated with depth perception. As an example, if you're riding in a car, objects that are close to you seem to go by really quickly (for example, a road sign that you pass), but objects that are further away appear to move much more slowly. Motion Parallax
Humans are able to see things that are both far and near, and can actually identify where those objects are in space (meaning, they can determine if those objects are close or far away). This sort of depth perception requires both of our eyes, which is referred to as ------------ (depth cues that requires both of our eyes).binocular cues
refers to our ability to perceive depth and see things in 3D. We owe this ability to the fact that our eyes are located beside each other on the front of our skull (as opposed to let's say a horse, whose eyes are located on opposite sides of its skull). Because of this placement, each eye's view of a scene is slightly different from the other. These two different pictures, when sent to the brain for processing, are fused to create a unified three-dimensional picture. Stereopsis allows us to do important everyday tasks that require depth perception and estimation of distance like parking our car, threading a needle, or grabbing a doorknob.Stereopsis
In order to perceive depth properly, your eyes must move slightly inward or converge. In so doing, people are able to determine if objects are close to them or far away. Convergence is also a term commonly used in statistics or mathematics referring to a point where two or more data points or pieces of information encounter one another. The easiest example that most of us can identify with comes from high school algebra where we used graphs to plot X and Y axes. The point where these two axes cross one another is a convergence.Retinal Convergence
occurs because of the difference between the retinal images of our eyes and how the differing signals influence the visual image perceived by our brain. Because we have two eyes, two slightly different signals are sent to the brain due to the slight discrepancies in the retinal image. The closer an object is to your eyes the more evident the disparity becomes. Hold a pencil arms length away from your face. The pencil looks normal and is sharp. Then slowly move the pencil closer to your face. As you get closer the pencil will become more blurry. This happens because of binocular disparity.Binocular Disparity
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Section 2

Question Answer
Researchers who developed the visual cliff to test depth perceptionEleanor Gibson & Richard Walk
test given to infants to see if they have developed depth perception. The way it works is there is a platform that is covered with a cloth that is draped all over the place. Then, a piece of glass or other clear material is placed on top of the platform and extends well off of the platform, creating a sort of bridge. An infant is then placed on the platform, and the infant's mother stands on the other side of the clear bridge. The mother calls for the child who, if it crawls off the platform and onto the clear bridge, it does not yet have depth perception. If it stops when it gets to the edge of the platform, looks down, and either is reluctant to cross or refuses to cross, then the child has depth perception. The reason is that the end of the platform looks like a cliff and going off the edge of the platform would have bad consequences. Visual Cliff
an object, idea, or experience as being more than the sum of its parts. When you put the parts together, you get the whole - in other words, you get the Gestalt. Gestalt
Developed by Fritz Perls, ----------- combines the psychoanalytic perspective of bringing unconscious feelings to awareness with the humanistic emphasis of "getting in touch with oneself" in order to help people become more aware of and able to express their feelings. In addition, it is not enough to just become aware of these feelings, it also helps people realize the importance of taking responsibility for their feelings and actions. Gestalt Therapy
a set of principles in psychology that were first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects. This perceptual tendency to perceive patterns and connectedness is a principle known as Prägnanz. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. Gestalt Laws Of Grouping
The Principles of Grouping are a set of principles in psychology that were first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects. This perceptual tendency to perceive patterns and connectedness is a principle known asPrägnanz
Gestalt principles are organized into five categoriesProximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure, and Symmetry
Gestalt principles represent the -----------, or minimum tendency, meaning that we tend to see objects in their simplest forms.law of Prägnanz
tendency for people to form social relationships with individuals who are physically closer to them. Proximity means how close an object or person is physically to you. Someone sitting next to you on a bench is closer in proximity than a person sitting three rows away. The principle of proximity shows that individuals are more likely to form social relationships with people who are closer in proximity to them. You are much more likely to befriend your neighbor or coworker because you are exposed to them more so than a person who lives further away or who works at another place. People who are around each other more are more likely to develop a social relationship.Principle Of Proximity
states that things that share visual characteristics like shape, size, color, texture, value or orientation will be grouped together. For instance, red items being placed with other red items, or animals being grouped with other animals.Principle Of Similarity
refers to the belief held in the Gestalt school of psychology that the human brain is inclined to perceive forms and figures in their entirely and complete appearance in spite of the absence of one or more parts, whether they are absent or hidden. This is one of the 5 Gestalt principles of grouping. For instance, if you are looking at a tree in the distance, but can only see top half, your brain is able to visualize the entire tree. Or in the image below you perceive a circle and a square even though some of the pieces are missing. Principle Of Closure
refers to vision and is the tendency to create continuous patterns and perceive connected objects as uninterrupted. Sometimes referred to as continuation, this is one category of the five Gestalt laws of grouping that are sets of principles used in psychology that were proposed to account for the human tendency to perceive objects as parts of organized patterns. Principle Of Continuity
tendency to perceive preferentially forms that make up mirror images. We tend to see the top figures as a single circle, and the lower figures as forming a single triangle.Principle Of Symmetry
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Section 3

Question Answer
ability to detect certain types of stimuli, like movements, shape, and angles, requires specialized cells in the brain called -------------------. Without these, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to detect a round object, like a baseball, hurdling toward you at 90 miles per hour.feature detectors
This approach differs from the law of Prägnanz, which reduces an image to its simplest form, by positing that organisms respond to specific aspects of a particular stimulus. For example, when driving a car we use feature detection to anticipate the movement of other cars and pedestrians that demand our immediate attention helping us to be more aware of the environment. feature detector approach
ability to recognize that an object or organism has not changed (remained the same object or organism) even though other stimuli have changed. For example, when you go to a school reunion you will be able to recognize the other people from your class even though their physical characteristics may have changed such as increased weight, hair loss, etc.Constancy or Perceptual Constancy
If you've ever watched a cartoon, you'll have a good understanding of Apparent Motion - this is an optical illusion that makes a still object appear to move. It works by flashing pictures of a still image in different locations so quickly that the image seems to move from one location to the other. If you draw a picture of a stick person throwing a ball, and have consecutive pictures of the ball in different spots along its path until in the last picture it is on the ground, and then flip quickly through the pictures, it would appear the ball was actually thrown. Animation uses this phenomenon to give the impression that inanimate objects are moving as well.Apparent Motion
Ah Christmas, such a warm wonderful time. And a time of visual illusion! One such visual illusion is the phi phenomenon in which lights next to each other blinking on and off in succession appear to actually move. For example, a string of lights across a house appear to "run" even though you know it's just one light turning off and the one next to it turning on and so on down the line.Phi Phenomenon
perceptual phenomenon in which an appearance of motion (or lack of motion) occurs when the stimulus is not viewed continuously but in distinct separate stages. Film reels work in this way - a film is comprised of many different separate stills that when viewed a certain way seem to have the appearance of motion. Another example is when wagon or bike wheels appear to go backwards when on film.Stroboscopic Effect
phenomenon that takes place when the eye looks at an stationary, bright light in the dark for a long time. After a period of time, the light appears to move, but really is not. This long stare causes the eyes’ muscles to become tired, causing a slight involuntary movement of the eyeball.Autokinetic Effect
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