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AP Psychology - CH 8 - Sensation & Perception Part 2 - The Princeton Review

celine's version from 2018-09-15 22:04

Section 1

Question Answer
a term that refers to how sound is received and perceived by the human ear. It refers to how sound waves affect different areas of the tympanic membrane, or eardrum, to create the perception of different types of sounds. A similar effect can be seen by hitting a tamborine in different spots; hitting near the side gives a flatter sound that hitting it in the center.Place Theory
This theory of how we hear sounds states that there are pulses that travel up the auditory nerve, carrying the information about sound to the brain for processing, and that the rate of this pulse matched the frequency of whatever tone you are hearing exactly. We thus hear the tone because the pulse traveling up the auditory nerve matches the actual tone. Essentially, we are getting a copy of the real sound.Frequency Theory
the condition of lacking the power of hearing or having impaired hearing.Deafness
hearing loss due to sound waves not reaching the sensing mechanism within the ear. This can result from damage to the ear canal and/or tiny ear bones that conduct sounds, or blockage from earwax, infectious material, or a tumor.Conductive Deafness
also called nerve deafness, is a type of hearing loss resulting from damage to the inner ear, the nerve pathway that connects to the brain, or the central processing centers of the brain. The most common cause is when the hairs in the inner ear are damaged. This could be from prolonged exposure to loud noises, excessive intake of drugs that may cause deafness such as aspirin or quinine, infectious illnesses like German measles or mumps, or a congenital abnormality.Sensorineural Deafness
also known as sensorineural deafness, is hearing impairment related to injuries or damage to the cochlea or nerves in the ear. This is opposed to conductive deafness that is related to issues of the outer ear or ear bones.Perceptive Deafness
the sense of smell. When you receive a beautiful bouquet of roses, for example, chemical compounds from the flowers travel through the air and hit your nose. Your nose then sends signals to your brain to respond to the scent of the flowers. Olfaction
the physical act or the sense of tasting. Gustation is one of our body's senses that we use to discern information from our environment. The gustatory system is used for taste discrimination, which tells the difference between foods using the taste receptors located on our tongues.Gustation
sensory receptors that provide information about pressure, pain, and temperatureCutaneous & Tactile receptors
The receptor cells for temperaturecold fibers & warm fibers
receptors which fire in response to cold stimulicold fibers
receptors which fire sensitive to warm stimuliwarm fibers
refers to the body's set of mechanisms that monitor and adjusts the body's sense of balance and orientation to the world. This sense is what keeps the body upright while standing, sitting or walking and is primarily located in the inner ear. This is why inner ear infections can result in problems with balance.Vestibular Sense
Imagine drive into a parking lot, get out of the car, and start to walk toward your destination. You decide to cut through a bunch of parked cars and notice that some of them are close together, so when you get to them, you have to turn and adjust your body in order to get through the tight spaces. The reason you are able to sense whether you can fit, what type of movements you need, how to adjust your body position, etc., is because you have -------------, or an ability to sense body position and the movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.Kinesthesis (Kinesthetic Sense)

Section 2

Question Answer
refers to an individual's ability to adjust to changes and new experiences, and to accept new information. The ability to adapt helps us grow mentally and continually develop.Adaptation
As humans, we get used to things. Something that is new and incredibly exciting can become boring. This tendency to have decreased responsiveness to something is habituation (you might also hear someone say that you get habituated to something). For example, there may be a painting or picture you really like so you put it on the wall in your room. You see this picture every day, 10 times a day. Over time and repeated exposures to this picture you might start feeling like you've "seen it a million times" and it just doesn't have the same effect on you that it used to. This is -------------.Habituation
When we repeatedly experience a stimulus, we eventually get used to it, and stop responding the same way we did when we first encountered it. We become habituated to it and stop paying attention until we are given a new stimulus. And then when we are once again given the original stimulus, we respond to it with a renewed interest. Our previous habituation to it has been reversed. That is calledDishabituation

Section 3

Question Answer
I've always been somewhat bothered by this term because it seems somewhat redundant to me...see what you think. Selective attention is purposely focusing your conscious awareness onto a specific stimulus. This means that if you are in a noisy place with lots of people and you purposely pay attention to the person you are speaking with, you are engaging in selective attention. Easy enough, right? So how is this different from "paying attention" or simply "attention"? I know there are subtle differences, but it seems redundant to me.Selective Attention
describes the the ability to focus your hearing on one specific thing even though noise is all around you. It is named such because this occurs when you are at a party- you can focus on the conversation you are having with the person close to you and can ignore all of the other noise and conversation going on around you. Your brain helps you selectively focus on the person you are talking too and 'mutes' the other conversation, music, and general noise around you.Cocktail Party Effect
The dichotic listening task is a very useful way to study selective attention. The task asked an observer pay attention to one of two different messages, each delivered to one ear over stereo earphones. For example, the left earphone may present Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, and the right earphone may give a list of random words. The observer is asked to pay attention to the Gettysburg Address and ignore the random words in the other ear. To make sure that attention is strictly focused on one message, the observer repeats aloud that message. This task is called -------------------. It is difficult to do, and it effectively fixes attention to that one ear. Observers repeat the shadowed message in a stiff voice, showing that they are putting out quite a bit of effort to do the shadowing well. shadowing
One of the earliest theories of attention was Donald Broadbent's filter model. Broadbent proposed the notion that a filter acts as a buffer on incoming sensory information to select what information gains conscious awareness. The attended information will pass through the filter, while unattended information will be completely blocked and ignored. The filter acts on stimuli solely on their physical characteristics, such as location, loudness, and pitch.Filter theories
More recent theories tend to focus on the idea of attention being a limited resource and how those resources are divvied up among competing sources of information. Such theories propose that we have a fixed amount of attention available and that we must then choose how we allocate our available attentional reserves among multiple tasks or events.Attentional resource theories
occurs when mental focus is on multiple tasks or ideas at once. Also known as multitasking, individuals do this all the time. Examples are singing along to a song while driving, having a conversation while walking, or listening to music while grocery shopping. Divided attention