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AP Psychology - CH 8 - Sensation & Perception Part 1 - The Princeton Review

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celine's version from 2018-09-15 17:40

Section 1

Question Answer
The relationship between physical stimulus and its psychological effectsSensation
How we recognize, interpret, and organize our sensationsPerception
------------ are the idea that our senses have limits.thresholds
The ability to distinguish the difference between two stumulidiscrimination threshold
The branch of psychology that deals with the effects of physical stimuli on sensory responsePsychophysics
-------------- is the smallest amount you can just sense something about half of the time. Absolute Threshold (What that means is that if the guy sitting next to you in class farts, and you take a whiff and smell it, but the next whiff do not smell it, then kind of smell it again- the fart is at your absolute threshold for smell.)
Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (“signal”) amid background stimulation (“noise”). Assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.Signal Detection Theory (SDT)
the signal was present, and the participant reported sensing ithit
the signal was present, but the participant did not sense itmiss
the signal was absent, but the participant reported sensing itfalse alarm
the signal was absent, but the participant did not report sensing itcorrect rejection
The minimum difference that a person can detect between two stimuli. We experience the difference threshold as a ----------------. Ok, picture this- you are watching TV (Family Guy or Gilmore Girls- take your pick) and your parents are singing Backstreet Boys in the next room. You grab the controller and raise the volume one bar, but you still can’t hear Peter Griffin and his witty anti-Semitic rhetoric (note the sarcastic tone). That change in volume was under your difference threshold (or just notice difference). In fact, you need to raise the volume four bars until you can tell the difference in amplitude. So the difference threshold for your hearing is somewhere between the three and four bars on your TV. Just Noticeable Difference (JND) or (Difference Threshold)
The minimum difference that a person can detect between two stimuli. Difference Threshold
pioneered the first study on JND (just noticeable difference), which become Weber’s Law; the JND between stimuli is a constant fraction of the intensity of the standard stimulus Ernst Weber
The principle that, to perceive their difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount).Weber's Law
A form of preconscious processing that occurs when we are presented with stimuli so rapidly that we are not consciously aware of themsubliminal perception
occurs when a person cannot recall a specific word or term even though they are aware that they know the word. Often times similar words and concepts or even the first letter of the word can be recalled just not the specific word that one is searching for. tip of the tongue phenomenon
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Section 2

Question Answer
Specialized cells in sensory organs that are designed to detect specific types of energyReceptor Cells
the portion of the retina that activates when light hits it. Once activated, it sends a signal to the brain of what type of light has entered the eye and retina.Receptive Field
Technically speaking, it is the process of converting one form of energy into another. As it relates to psychology, it refers to changing physical energy into electrical signals (neural impusles) that can make their way to the brain. For example, your ears receive energy (sound waves) and transduce (or convert) this energy into neural messages that make their way to your brain and are processed as sounds.Transduction
a term that references the opposite side of something. 'Contra' means opposite or contrasting while 'lateral' means side. It is usually used in regards to the opposite side of the body from which something occurs. The hemispheres of the brain control the contralateral sides of the body. So the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body. A stroke that causes damage to the left side of the brain can cause paralysis on the right side of the body.Contralateral
occurs at the level of the thalamus; process in which much of the sensory input from one side of the body travels to the opposite side of the brainContralateral Shift
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Section 3

Question Answer
Process by which receptors convey such a range of information to the brainSensory coding
Technique by which firing rate and pattern of a single receptor cell can be measured in response to varying sensory inputSingle Cell Recording
Occurs when the eye receives light input from the outside worldVisual Sensation
any physical object or event in the external world that reflects light.Distal Stimulus
Distal Stimulus is any physical object or event in the external world that reflects light. This light or energy, called the ---------------, is what excites the receptors on our eyes, leading to visual perception. This means that when we look at a distal stimulus such as a flower we don’t actually experience the flower physically – we only experience it in our mind, as a product of energy creating a sensory response in our eyes.Proximal Stimulus
the transparent outer layer of the eye responsible for protection and vision. It protects the inner parts of the eye from germs and small objects like dust along with the filtration of harmful UV light. Cornea (In regards to vision the cornea bends the light that enters the eye which is responsible for the ability to focus on objects. There are three layers of the cornea: the endothelium, stroma, and epithelium.)
The human eye is made of several layers and components. Behind the cornea, iris, and pupil sits the -------- (it is directly behind the pupil) which actually changes shape as you try to focus on something. lens
When you try to focus on something the lens changes shape called ----------- and then focuses the incoming light onto the back of the eye (the retina) which send the information on to be processed by the brain.accommodations
the area in back of the eye that contains your rods and cones. Rods help you detect movement while cones help you see color. Both of these receptors transfer light into electrical impulses so that your brain can interpret them.retina
help you detect movement while cones help you see color. Both of these receptors transfer light into electrical impulses so that your brain can interpret them.rods
Rods help you detect movement while ---------- help you see color. Both of these receptors transfer light into electrical impulses so that your brain can interpret them.cones
the central focal point on the retina in the eye around which the cones cluster. In fact, it has only cones around it, which are better for detecting fine detail. So, when trying to really see some fine detail or focus something, people tend to move the image onto this although they may be unaware that this is what they are doing...they just think they are trying to see something better.fovea
a type of nerve cells that combine the impulses from many of the visual receptor cells in the retina and then transmits those impulses to the ganglion cells.bipolar cells
coordinate and integrate information by connecting bipolar cells of the eye and ganglion cells to like cells in the retina of the eye.amacrine cells
one of the twelve cranial nerves and is behind the eyeball and transmits visual information to the brain.optic nerves
an area at the base of your forebrain where your optic nerves (the nerves connected to your eyes that carry information about vision) cross and carry information to the brain. By crossing, the optic nerve of the right eye carries information to the left side of the brain and the optic nerve of the left eye carries information to the right side of the brain.optic chiasm
mental tasks that must be carried out in sequence, one after another, rather than simultaneously. Although we are able to perceive multiple stimuli at the same, and we often perform many activities at once, certain tasks require serial processing to fully attend to the stimulus. For example, when reading this sentence you cannot process all the words in one glance; instead, you read them in sequence, from left to right.serial processing
the ability of the brain to do many things (aka, processes) at once. For example, when a person sees an object, they don't see just one thing, but rather many different aspects that together help the person identify the object as a whole. For example, you may see the colors red, black, and silver. These colors alone may not mean too much, but if you also see shapes such as rectangles, circles, and curved shapes, your brain may perceive all the elements simultaneously, put them together and identify it as a car. Note that motion and depth of the object can also be perceived. These cues processed in the brain tell the person that the red car is headed straight at them so they jump out of the way. Without parallel processing, the brain would have to process each aspect of the car separately in progression. By the time the person identified the car, it would be too late.parallel processing
The ability to detect certain types of stimuli, like movements, shape, and angles, requires specialized cells in the brain called feature detectors. Without these, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to detect a round object, like a baseball, hurdling toward you at 90 miles per hour.feature detector
Also known as the Trichromatic Theory, this is a theory of color and how humans perceive color. According to this theory, the human retina contains three different receptors for color (meaning each one is most sensitive to one color): one is most sensitive to red, one is most sensitive to green, and one is most sensitive to blue. These color receptors combine the colors to produce the perception of virtually any color. You notice that there are no receptors specific to orange, but by stimulating the right cones in the right way, orange color is produced.Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic (three Color) Theory
this is a theory of color and how humans perceive color. According to this theory, the human retina contains three different receptors for color (meaning each one is most sensitive to one color): one is most sensitive to red, one is most sensitive to green, and one is most sensitive to blue. These color receptors combine the colors to produce the perception of virtually any color. You notice that there are no receptors specific to orange, but by stimulating the right cones in the right way, orange color is produced.Trichromatic Theory
A theory suggested by Solomon where emotional reactions to a stimulus are followed by opposite emotional reactions. This theory may explain why stunt people enjoy their work. First the individual will feel intense anxiety before performing a stunt and then the person will receive an opposite reaction of relief after the stunt is completed. The theory also postulates that repeated exposure to the stimulus will cause less of an initial reaction and a stronger opposing reaction. This may explain why drugs, such as opiates, give diminishing returns after prolonged use yet the effects of withdraw become more intensified and unpleasant.Opponent Process Theory
An ------------ occurs when visually perceiving an image after you are not looking at the stimulus anymore. For example, if you look at the sun for a bit and then look away you can see the afterimage of the sun even though you are not looking at it anymore. A negative afterimage sensation of opposing colors that occurs after staring at a colored stimulus. afterimage
-------------- is a vision defect wherein the eye perceives some colors differently than others. This condition may be hereditary or may be caused by a disease of the optic nerve or retina. Color blindness
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Section 4

Question Answer
What we hear and is neuroanatomically connected with the vestibular sense.Auditory input
the medical term for eardrum. It is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear and works by transmitting sound vibrations through the membrane to the small bones of the middle ear to the fluid-filled cochlea of the inner ear thereby changing sound waves taken from the air into fluid waves that affect the nerves that transmit sound to the brain.Tympanic Membrane
Literally meaning "small bones" the term ------------ is generally used as a collective term for the small bones of the middle ear. Referred to as the malleus, incus and stapes (or hammer, anvil, and stirrup) these bones function in the middle ear to conduct sound waves through the fluid of the cochlea to transmit sound from the environment to the brain. These bones are the smallest in the human body with the stapes being the smallest.ossicles
refers to the space between the eardrum and the inner ear, where three tiny bones, known as ossicles are located and named based on their shapes: the malleus, meaning hammer, the incus or anvil and the stapes or stirrup. When sound waves vibrate on the surface of the eardrum, the bones transmit those movements to the inner ear. The fluid and surfaces of the inner ear send the vibrations as signals to the auditory nerves and we can then "hear" the sound.Middle ear
Ossicles are located and named based on their shapes: the malleus, meaning hammer, the incus or anvil and the --------- or stirrup.stapes
is a bony, spiral-shaped, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves travel and trigger nerve impulses. It looks very much like a snail and is a vital component in hearing. Nerve impulses that send auditory signals to the brain for interpretation are sent from it.The cochlea (from the Greek word meaning "snail")
the body's system of mechanisms that maintain the body's equilibrium or sense of spatial orientation and balance in relation to gravity while standing, walking or sitting. The majority of this system is located within the mechanisms of the inner ear, namely the cochlea and semicircular canals. This is why inner ear infections cause equilibrium problems.Vestibular system
located in the inner ear and are responsible for our sense of balance. semicircular canals
The ------------ provide information about the position of the head relative to the body.Vestibular sacs
The ------------ provide information related to head movements and rotations semicircular canals
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