AP Psychology - CH 7 - Biological Basis of Behavior Part 2- The Princeton Review

celine's version from 2018-09-13 15:20

Section 1

Question Answer
bundles of neuronsnerves
A highly specialized nerve cell responsible for receiving and transmitting information in electrical and chemical forms. Neurons are the fundamental building blocks of the nervous system.neuron
Cell body; contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell necessary for its lifesoma
Branching out from the soma are -----------, which receive input from other neurons through receptors on their surfacedendrites
long tube like structure that responds to input from the dendrites and somaaxon
fatty coating surrounding the axon to serve as insulation for the electrical impulses carried down the axon and to speed up the rate at which electrical information travels down the axonmyelin sheath
Myelin looks like beads on a string and the small gaps between the myelin are known as --------.nodes of ranvier
The axons end in -------------, knobs on the branched end of the axon. They release neurotransmitters.terminal buttons
Terminal buttons come very close to the cell body and dendrites of other neurons, but they do not touch. The gap between them is known as a ------------.synapse
Chemical messengers across the synapseneurotransmitters
A resting (non-signaling) neuron has a voltage across its membrane called the ------------. The resting membrane potential across the plasma membrane is approximately ........... resting membrane potential, -70 millivolts
channels that are always open and allow ions to leak across the membrane according to their gradient. leak channels
A brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron.action potential
Electrical signal transmitted by the nervous system.nerve impulse
chemical secreted at terminal button that causes the neuron on the other side of the synapse to generate an action potential (to fire).excitatory neurotransmitter
chemical secreted at terminal button that reduces or prevents neural impulses in the postsynaptic dendrites.inhibitory neurotransmitter
helps to break down the neurotransmitter after the neurotransmitter is released and has conducted the impulse to the next cell or cellsenzymes
A process in which the neurotransmitter is absorbed back into the cell that released it.reuptake
a neurotransmitter that causes contraction of skeletal muscles, helps regulate heart muscles, is involved in memory and also transmits messages between the brain and spinal cord. Lack of ACh is associated with Alzheimer’s disease.acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter associated with arousal, sleep, appetite, moods, and emotions. Lack of serotonin is associated with depression.serotonin
a neurotransmitter that stimulates the hypothalamus to synthesize hormones and affects alertness, attention, and movement. Lack of dopamine is associated with Parkinson’s disease; too much with schizophrenia.dopamine
a neurotrans- mitter that inhibits firing of postsynaptic neurons. Huntington’s disease and seizures are associated with malfunctioning GABA systems.GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)
an excitatory neurotransmitter and the all-purpose counterpart to GABAGlutamate
affects levels of alertness, a lack of norepinephrine is linked to depressionnorepinephrine
neurotransmitters similar to the opiate morphine that relieves pain, and may induce feelings of pleasure.endorphins

Section 2

Question Answer
endocrine gland in brain that produces stimulating hormones which promote secretion by other glands, including TSH (thyroid-stimulating hor- mone); ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), which stimulates the adrenal cortex; FSH, which stimulates egg or sperm production; ADH (antidi-uretic hormone), to help retain water in your body; and HGH (human growth hormone). pituitary gland
chemical messenger that travels through the blood to a receptor site on a target organ.hormones
produced by the pituitary gland and its key function is to stimulate the production and release of cortisol from the cortex of the adrenal gland.adrenocorticotropic hormone
endocrine glands atop kidneys. Adrenal cortex, the outer layer, produces steroid hormones such as cortisol which is a stress hormone. Adrenal medulla, the core, secretes adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) which prepare the body for “fight or flight” like the sympathetic nervous system does.adrenal glands
an amino acid-derived hormone secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stressepinephrine (adrenaline)
a neurotransmitter found in the locus coeruleus which is synthesized from dopamine. Norepinephrine, produced by the adrenal medulla, is a stress hormone that increases blood pressure, heart rate, and glucose from energy stores; in the kidneys, it will cause constriction of the smooth muscles, resulting in decreased or inhibited flow to the nephrons. norepinephrine
endocrine gland in neck that produces thyroxine which stimulates and maintains metabolic activities.thyroid gland
a hormone (an iodine derivative of tyrosine), produced by the thyroid gland, that regulates cell metabolism and growththyroxine

Section 3

Question Answer
distinctive characteristics or behavior patterns that are determined by geneticstrait
a trait that is more likely to be expressed in an offspringdominant trait
a trait that is more likely to be expressed in an offspringrecessive trait
comprises all of the possible combinations of genesgenotype
the physical expression of a genotypephenotype
the degree of variance among individuals that can be attributed to genetic variationsheritability
the degree to which a trait's expression is caused by the environment in which an organism livesenvironmentality
the scientific, cultural, and philosophical debate about whether human culture, behavior, and personality are caused primarily by nature or nurture. Nature is often defined in this debate as genetic or hormone-based behaviors, while nurture is most commonly defined as environment and experience.nature versus nurture debate
occurs when there are 3 copies of the 21st chromosome, which generally causes an intellectual disabilityDown syndrome
a genetic progressive brain disorder that causes uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and loss of thinking ability (cognition) and usually does not occur until after the age of 40. Huntington's chorea