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AP Psychology - CH 7 - Biological Basis of Behavior Part 1- The Princeton Review

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celine's version from 2018-09-13 03:24

Section 1

Question Answer
the study of behavior as influenced by biology. It draws its techniques and research methods from biology and medicine to examine psychological phenomenaphysiological psychology
measures subtle changes in brain electrical activity through electrodes places on the head; allowed scientists to get electrical pic of brain during cognitive tasksEEG (electroencephalogram)
generate cross-sectional images of the brain through an X-ray like techniqueCAT (computerized axial tomography)
generates more highly detailed pics of the brain than the CAT, captures "snapshots" don't allow observation of brain in action over timeMRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
view the brain as its working and provides viewing by rapid sequencing of MRI imagesfMRI (functional MRI)
view the brain as its working and provides images via diffusion of radioactive glucose in the brainPET scan (position emission tomography)
the widespread system of nerves and neurons throughout the human body. two subsets- central and peripheralnervous system
comprised of the brain and the spinal cordcentral nervous system (CNS)
part of the nervous system encompassing everything but the brain and spinal cordperipheral nervous system (PNS)
type of neuron which sends sensory information to the brainafferent neuron
type of neuron which sends motor information out of the brainefferent neuron
quick and involuntary responses to environmental stimulireflexes
part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the voluntary movement of large skeletal musclessomatic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for involuntary movement and smooth muscle systemautonomic nervous system
associated with processes that burn energy; heightened state of physiological arousal: part of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the "fight or flight" responsesympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the "rest and digest" response. complementary opposite system responsible for conserving energy; becomes active, sending blood to the stomach for digestion and slowing the heart rate and conserving eneregyparasympathetic nervous system
an increase in heart rate and respiration, accompanied by a decrease in digestion and salivationfight-or-flight reaction
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Section 2

Question Answer
the oldest part of the brain to develop in evolutionary terms. composed of the cerebellum, reticular formation, medulla, and ponshindbrain
section of the brain encompassing the brain's roof and floormidbrain
located at the front of the head; section of the brain encompassing the limbic system (thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) and hypothalamus, plus cerebral cortexforebrain
emotional center of the brain (thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) limbic system
the wrinkled outer layer of the brain. this is involved in higher cognitive functions such as thinking, planning, language use, and fine motor control. this area receives sensory input and sends out motor informationcerebral cortex
part of the brain that controls muscle tone and balancecerebellum
part of the brain that controls involuntary actions, such as breathing, digestion, heart rate, and swallowing (basic life functions)medulla oblongata
part of the brain that controls arousal (wakefulness and alertness)reticular activating system (RAS)
part of the brain that helps sort incoming information and also helps control sleeppons
part of the brain that relays sensory information; receives and directs sensory information from visual and auditory systemsthalamus
the brain's rooftectum
the brain's floortegmentum
part of the brain that is involved in processing and integrating memories. destruction of this area prevents the formation of new memories, not eliminate existing memorieshippocampus
part of the brain implicated in the expression of anger and frustrationamygdala
part of the brain that controls the temperature and water balance of the body; controls hunger and sex drives; orchestrates the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine systemhypothalamus
regulates eating behaviors and body weight- "on" switch for eatinglateral hypothalamus
regulates eating behaviors and body weight- "off" switch for eatingventromedial hypothalamus
the wrinkled outer layer of the brain. this is involved in higher cognitive functions such as thinking, planning, language use, and fine motor control. this area receives sensory input and sends out motor informationcerebral cortex
part of the brain that processes sensory inputsensory cortex
part of the brain that processes motor informationmotor cortex
the two symmetrical-looking sides of the brain; together they make the cerebrumleft and right cerebral hemispheres
the band of connective nerve fibers which connects the left and right cerebral hemispherescorpus callosum
experimenter who observed that brain damage to the left hemisphere in stroke patients resulted in the loss of the ability to speakPaul Broca
the loss of the ability to speakexpressive aphasia
spot in left hemisphere (left frontal lobe) which controls speech productionBroca's area
experimenter who discovered an area in the left temporal lobe that, when damaged in stroke patients, results in the inability to comprehend speechCarl Wernicke
the inability to comprehend speechreceptive aphasia
the area in the left temporal lobe that controls the ability to comprehend speechWernicke's area
researcher who demonstrated that the two hemispheres of the brain can operate independently of each other. Performed experiments on split-brain patientsRoger Sperry
patients who had their corpus callosums severed to control their epileptic seizures. They can describe objects without deficit if presented in the right visual field, but they have great difficulty drawing the image; whereas, if the image is presented in the left visual field, the person can draw or choose the object but cannot explain it verbally. split-brain patients
split-brain patients can describe objects without deficit if presented in the right visual field, but they have great difficulty drawing the image; whereas, if the image is presented in the left visual field, the person can draw or choose the object but cannot explain it verbally. This is calledcontralateral processing
section of the cortex responsible for higher-level thought and reasoning, including working memory, paying attention, solving problems, making plans, forming judgments, and performing movementsfrontal lobe
section of the cortex handling somatosensory information and is the home of the primary somatosensory cortex. This area receives information about temperature, pressure, texture, and painparietal lobe
section of the cortex handling auditory input and that is critical for processing speech and appreciating musictemporal lobe
section of the cortex which processes visual inputoccipital lobe
a structure in the forebrain formed by the decussation of fibers of the optic nerve from each half of each retina. visual information gets transmitted from one eye to the opposite side of the brain- this is the place where optic nerves cross so information can get to the half of the brain it's supposed tooptic chiasm
highly specialized sections of the cerebral cortex which are responsible for associating information in the sensory and motor corticesassociation areas
the inability to organize movementapraxia
a difficulty processing sensory inputagnosia
the inability to readalexia
the inability to writeagraphia
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