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# AP Psychology - CH 6 - Methods & Approaches - The Princeton Review

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2018-09-13 01:21

## Section 1

Question | Answer |
---|---|

an investigation seeking to understand relations of cause and effect | experiment |

manipulated variable | independent variable |

variable that is measured | dependent variable |

group of interest (stats term) | population |

a study-able subset of the population | representative sample |

the degree to which a sample reflects the diverse characteristics of the population that is being studied | representativeness |

the group receiving or reacting to the independent variable | experimental group |

the group that does not receive the independent variable but should be kept identical to the experimental group in all other respects | control group |

a way of ensuring maximum representativeness | random sampling |

the process by which experimental subjects are randomly sorted into either the experimental and control groups. Used to ensure that each group has minimal differences | random assignment |

the subjects do not know whether they are in the control or experimental group, but the researchers do | single blind design |

neither the subjects nor the researcher know who is in the two groups | double-blind design |

a seemingly therapeutic object or procedure which causes the control group to believe they are in the experimental group but actually contains none of the tested material | placebo |

nvolves assessing the degree of association between two or more variables or characteristics of interest that occur naturally | correlational research |

Correlation does not prove causation. (Remember this) | Correlation does not prove causation. |

a variable that the researcher fails to control, or eliminate, damaging the internal validity of an experiment | confounding variable |

aims to advance medical knowledge by studying people | clinical research |

intensive psychological studies of a single individual- can get a lot of detail but often less generalizability | case studies |

applicable to similar circumstances because of the predictable outcomes of repeated trials | generalizable |

the definition of the theory or issue being studied | conceptual definition |

the definition of how the theory or issue being studied will be directly observed or measured in the study | operational definition |

the certainty with which the results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than to some other confounding variable | internal validity |

the extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other contexts in the "real world" | external validity |

whether or not the same results appear if the experiment is repeated under similar conditions | reliability |

## Section 2

Question | Answer |
---|---|

summarize data | descriptive statistics |

allow researchers to test hypotheses about data and determine how confident they can be in their inferences about the data | inferential statistics |

descriptive statistics which characterize the typical value in a set of data | measures of central tendency |

arithmetic average of a set of numbers | mean |

the most frequently occurring value in the data set | mode |

the number that falls exactly in the middle of a distribution of numbers | median |

the symmetrical bell-shaped curve of a normal distribution | normal curve |

most values are on the lower end, but there are some exceptionally large values | positive skew/right skew |

most values are on the higher end, but there are some exceptionally small values | negative skew/left skew |

how much the numbers in the data set differ from each other | variability |

a function of the average dispersion of numbers around the mean and is a commonly used measure of variability | standard deviation |

the standing of one score relative to all other scores in a set of data | percentile |

a statistic which will describe how the attributes we are studying relate to one another | correlation coefficient |

a descriptive statistics that describes the linear relationship between two attributes | Pearson correlation coefficient |

as variable x increases, variable y decreases | negative correlation |

as variable x increases, so does variable y | positive correlation |

Statistics used to determine our level of confidence in claiming that a given set of results would be extremely unlikely to occur if the result was only up to chance | Inferential statistics |

When experiments are conducted, they are typically conducted using a small group of people. However, psychologists typically want to be able to ------------ the results of the experiment to a larger group of people, perhaps even to all people. | generalize |

Small group of people in the experiment | Sample |

Large group to whom the psychologist is trying to generalize | Population |

It is important that the sample reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole. If it does, then the sample is referred to as being ----------------. | representative |

refers to the number of observations or individuals measured. | sample size |

Hypothesis that assumes that the manipulation of the independent variable will have no effect on the results of an experiment | Null hypothesis |

States that a treatment had no effect in an experiment! | Null hypothesis |

States that a treatment did have an effect in an experiment! | Alternative hypothesis |

Accepted probability that the result of an experiment can be attributed to chance rather than the manipulation of the independent variable | Alpha |

refers to the conclusion that a difference exists when in fact this difference does not exist | Type 1 error |

refers to the conclusion that there is no difference when in fact there is a difference | Type 2 error |

Probability of making a Type 1 error | p value |

## Section 3

Question | Answer |
---|---|

conducted obedience experiments in which he convinced participants that they were administering painful electric shocks to other participants, when, in fact, no shocks were given. | Stanley Milgram |

They only agree to participate in the study after they have been told what their participation entails | Informed consent |

Participants in the experiment are told the exact purpose of their participation in the research and of any deception that may have been used in the process of experimentation | debriefing |

protecting the identities of experimental participants | confidentiality |

## Section 4

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Psychology put directly into practice | Applied psychology |

Psychology grounded in research and is often conducted at universities and private laboratories | Basic psychology |

Difference between Psychology and Psychiatry | Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and its practitioners are medical doctors and can prescribe medication, where as psychology is a much broader category. |

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