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AP Psychology - CH 6 - Methods & Approaches - The Princeton Review

celine's version from 2018-09-13 01:21

Section 1

Question Answer
an investigation seeking to understand relations of cause and effectexperiment
manipulated variableindependent variable
variable that is measureddependent variable
group of interest (stats term)population
a study-able subset of the populationrepresentative sample
the degree to which a sample reflects the diverse characteristics of the population that is being studiedrepresentativeness
the group receiving or reacting to the independent variableexperimental group
the group that does not receive the independent variable but should be kept identical to the experimental group in all other respectscontrol group
a way of ensuring maximum representativenessrandom sampling
the process by which experimental subjects are randomly sorted into either the experimental and control groups. Used to ensure that each group has minimal differencesrandom assignment
the subjects do not know whether they are in the control or experimental group, but the researchers dosingle blind design
neither the subjects nor the researcher know who is in the two groupsdouble-blind design
a seemingly therapeutic object or procedure which causes the control group to believe they are in the experimental group but actually contains none of the tested materialplacebo
nvolves assessing the degree of association between two or more variables or characteristics of interest that occur naturallycorrelational research
Correlation does not prove causation. (Remember this)Correlation does not prove causation.
a variable that the researcher fails to control, or eliminate, damaging the internal validity of an experimentconfounding variable
aims to advance medical knowledge by studying peopleclinical research
intensive psychological studies of a single individual- can get a lot of detail but often less generalizabilitycase studies
applicable to similar circumstances because of the predictable outcomes of repeated trialsgeneralizable
the definition of the theory or issue being studiedconceptual definition
the definition of how the theory or issue being studied will be directly observed or measured in the studyoperational definition
the certainty with which the results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than to some other confounding variableinternal validity
the extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other contexts in the "real world"external validity
whether or not the same results appear if the experiment is repeated under similar conditionsreliability

Section 2

Question Answer
summarize datadescriptive statistics
allow researchers to test hypotheses about data and determine how confident they can be in their inferences about the datainferential statistics
descriptive statistics which characterize the typical value in a set of datameasures of central tendency
arithmetic average of a set of numbersmean
the most frequently occurring value in the data setmode
the number that falls exactly in the middle of a distribution of numbersmedian
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve of a normal distributionnormal curve
most values are on the lower end, but there are some exceptionally large valuespositive skew/right skew
most values are on the higher end, but there are some exceptionally small valuesnegative skew/left skew
how much the numbers in the data set differ from each othervariability
a function of the average dispersion of numbers around the mean and is a commonly used measure of variabilitystandard deviation
the standing of one score relative to all other scores in a set of datapercentile
a statistic which will describe how the attributes we are studying relate to one anothercorrelation coefficient
a descriptive statistics that describes the linear relationship between two attributesPearson correlation coefficient
as variable x increases, variable y decreasesnegative correlation
as variable x increases, so does variable ypositive correlation
Statistics used to determine our level of confidence in claiming that a given set of results would be extremely unlikely to occur if the result was only up to chanceInferential statistics
When experiments are conducted, they are typically conducted using a small group of people. However, psychologists typically want to be able to ------------ the results of the experiment to a larger group of people, perhaps even to all people.generalize
Small group of people in the experimentSample
Large group to whom the psychologist is trying to generalizePopulation
It is important that the sample reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole. If it does, then the sample is referred to as being ----------------.representative
refers to the number of observations or individuals measured.sample size
Hypothesis that assumes that the manipulation of the independent variable will have no effect on the results of an experimentNull hypothesis
States that a treatment had no effect in an experiment!Null hypothesis
States that a treatment did have an effect in an experiment!Alternative hypothesis
Accepted probability that the result of an experiment can be attributed to chance rather than the manipulation of the independent variableAlpha
refers to the conclusion that a difference exists when in fact this difference does not existType 1 error
refers to the conclusion that there is no difference when in fact there is a differenceType 2 error
Probability of making a Type 1 errorp value

Section 3

Question Answer
conducted obedience experiments in which he convinced participants that they were administering painful electric shocks to other participants, when, in fact, no shocks were given. Stanley Milgram
They only agree to participate in the study after they have been told what their participation entailsInformed consent
Participants in the experiment are told the exact purpose of their participation in the research and of any deception that may have been used in the process of experimentationdebriefing
protecting the identities of experimental participantsconfidentiality

Section 4

Question Answer
Psychology put directly into practiceApplied psychology
Psychology grounded in research and is often conducted at universities and private laboratoriesBasic psychology
Difference between Psychology and PsychiatryPsychiatry is the study of mental disorders and its practitioners are medical doctors and can prescribe medication, where as psychology is a much broader category.