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AP Psychology - CH 5 - History - The Princeton Review

celine's version from 2018-09-12 18:35

Section 1

Question Answer
the study of behavior and the mindpsychology
a natural process subject to natural laws referring to the observable actions of a person or an animalbehavior
the sensations, memories, motives, emotions, thoughts, and other subjective phenomena particular to an individual or animal that are not readily observedmind
divides the world and all things in it into 2 parts: body and spiritdualism
the command center of the central nervous systembrain
1596-1650, believed that physical world is not under divine influence but instead follows observable rules (humans are the exception, because we have a mind). Hypothesized that the mind and body interact, where the body provides sensory information and the mind processes it, and this interaction occurs in the pineal gland. Theorized that reflexes aren't controlled by the mindRené Descartes
brain gland located on top of the brain stempineal gland
1632-1704, expanded on Descartes' views, extrapolating to believe that humans are also subject to these observable laws. His school of thought is known as empiricism. He also proposed the tabula rasa theory, and advocated for nurture>nature.John Locke
the acquisition of truth through observations and experiencesempiricism
blank slate, theory postulating that almost all knowledge that we have must be learned; almost nothing is innatetabula rasa
1588-1679, believed that the ideas of soul/spirit/mind are meaningless. Philosophy known as materialism. Stressed nature>nurture. Influenced behaviorismThomas Hobbes
he belief that the only things that exist are matter and energymaterialism
1809-1882, wrote "On the Origin of Species," proposed natural selection and set the stage for evolutionary theoryCharles Darwin
theory that says that all creatures have evolved into their present state over long periods of timenatural selection
1832-1920, founder of psychology, first laboratoryWilhelm Wundt
1867-1927, brought psychology to US, theorized structuralismEdward Titchener
looking for patterns in thought, which are illuminated through interviews with a subject describing his or her conscious experience (introspection)structuralism
describing one's own conscious experience. this proved unreliable as a research method in the long runintrospection
1842-1910, opposed structuralist approach, developed functionalismWilliam James
psychological approach aimed at understanding how the mind fulfills its purposefunctionalism

Section 2

Question Answer
he field of psychology that seeks to understand that interactions between anatomy and physiology and behavior. tested by directly applying biological experimentation to psychological problems; for example, in determining which portion of the brain is involved in a particular behavioral process (CAT scans, MRIs, EEGs, or PET scans)biological psychology
the field of psychology that emphasizes that particular behaviors are attributed to particular, genetically-based psychological characteristics. (focus on how genetics impacts behavior)behavior genetics
posits that psychology is the study of observable behavior, with the mind or mental events unimportant because they cannot be observedbehaviorism
early behaviorist finding (from Ivan Pavlov), a basic form of learning in which a behavior comes to be elicited by a formerly neutral stimulusclassical conditioning
1878-1958, applied behaviorist ideas to Little Albert experimentJohn Watson
1904-1990, behaviorist who discovered operant conditioningB. F. Skinner
a set of techniques in which psychological problems are considered to be the product of learned habits, which can be unlearned by the application of behavioral methodsbehavior modification
an approach rooted in the idea that to understand people's behavior, we must first understand how they construe their environment- in other words, how they thinkcognitive psychology
a holistic study of personality that developed in response to a general dissatisfaction with behaviorism's inattention to the mind and its functionhumanistic approach
1908-1970, humanist who proposed the idea of self-actualizationAbraham Maslow
the need for individuals to reach their full potential in a creative way. accepting yourself and your nature, while knowing your limits and strengthsself-actualization
humanist who stressed the role of unconditional positive regard in interactions and the need for positive self-concept as critical factors in attaining self-actualizationCarl Rogers
the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does, especially in the context of client-centered therapyunconditional positive regard
1856-1939, developed psychoanalytical theorySigmund Freud
stresses the importance of childhood experiences and a child's relationship with his or her parents to the development of personalitypsychoanalytic (/psychodynamic) theory
a mental state of awareness that we have ready access toconscious mind
those mental processes that we do not normally have access to but are yet influenced by in some wayunconscious mind
buried in the unconsciousrepressed
theory postulating that the environment a person lives in has a great deal to do with how the person behaves and how others perceive that behaviorsociocultural approach
focuses on theories of Darwin- behavior can be best explained in terms of how adaptive that behavior is to our survivalevolutionary approach