AP Government Midterm Review

jazzy's version from 2017-01-20 11:52

Section 1

Question Answer
Articles of Confederationa written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
PACpolitical action committee, an organization that raises money privately to influence elections or legislation, especially at the federal level.
Linkage Institutionsa structure within a society that connects the people to the government, includes: elections, political parties, interest groups, and media.
John LockeJohn Locke believed in the consent of the governed, limited government, natural rights.

Section 2

Question Answer
Basic Principles of Democracymaintains order, limits the power of the government
Ticket Splittingsplitting votes between Democrats and Republicans
Natural Rightsthe idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
GatekeepingJob of the media, decides what the public will focus on
Iron TriangleAlliance- agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees

Section 3

Question Answer
Power and AuthorityYou cannot have power without authority
Two Party Systemwhere two major political parties dominate the government
Interstate Commercetransportation of goods across states
Agenda SettingThe process of forming the list of matters that policymakers intend to address
GerrymanderingDrawing of congressional districts to favor one political party over another

Section 4

Question Answer
ConstitutionA nation's basic law, it creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.
Superdelegatesin the Democratic Party, an unelected delegate who is free to support any candidate for the presidential nomination at the party's national convention.
ScorekeepingTracks Political reputations/canidacies
Necessary and Proper CauseCongress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
Single-Member DistrictsElectoral system where elections represents an area, district is represented by one person

Section 5

Question Answer
Federalistssupporters of the stronger central government, advocated the ratification of the new constitution
Economic Conditions and ElectionsIf there were an incumbent in the election, and the economy was good during his term then he will get reelected. If the economy were bad then he wouldn't get reelected as easily.
Eminent DomainGovernment power to take private property for public use
Rules Committeea legislative committee responsible for speeding up the passage of bills
Anti-Federalistsopponents of a strong central government, campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independent states

Section 6

Question Answer
Ways and Means CommitteeExclusive to HOR, committee makes taxes/revenue bills
Equal Protection Clause14th Amendment
Horse Race JournalismWhere they only focus on the canidates polls and not the policies
Pork Barrel Politicsthe use of government funds for projects designed to please voters or legislators and win votes
Voting Eligibility (per the constitution)over 18 years old or older, and have no criminal record

Section 7

Question Answer
Congressional CaucusAn association of congressional members who advocate a political ideology/regional/ethnic/economic interest
American Political Culturea system of shared political traditions, customs, beliefs and values with americans
Revenue Billa bill for raising money for any public purpose.
Federal Mandatea constitutional division of power between levels (national and state) of government.
Political Parties as a linkage InstitutionsParties align voters into a group with the same ideologies

Section 8

Question Answer
Legislative Oversightoversight by Congress over the Executive Branch, includes; the review, monitoring, and supervision of federal agencies, programs, activities, and policy implementation.
Democrata member or supporter of democracy
Bicameralism2 chambers; Congress has the Senate and the House of Representatives
Dual FederalismA system of government in which both the states and the national gov. remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies
Interest groups limiting democracyThey can limit democracy by paying off the politicians to pass the bills that they want, but what the people don't necessarily want.

Section 9

Question Answer
Entitlementsthe amount to which a person has a right
Republicansa member or supporter of the Republican Party
Conference CommitteeA temporary committee to work out a compromise version of a bill that has passed the House of Representatives and Senate in different forms
Policy-making decisions and competing interestsproblem identification, agenda setting, policy formulation, budgeting, implementing and evaluation. It is anything that interferes with the full presentation, peer review, editorial decision-making, etc.
Great CompromiseCompromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house

Section 10

Question Answer
Nominatingpropose or formally enter as a candidate for election
CloturePrevents filibustering (16 signatures) and ends debate in the Senate, by a 3/5s vote of the Senate
Budgetary processthe process by which governments create and approve a budget
Voting (who)45+ year old white males usually vote republican
College graduates vote more then high school students and high school dropout, and they are usually more liberal voters
FilibusterA lengthy speech designed to delay or kill the vote on a bill; used only in the Senate

Section 11

Question Answer
Cooperative FederalismCooperation among federal, state, and local gov.; "marble cake" federalism
Christmas Tree Billa bill that attracts many, often unrelated, floor amendments
GOTVGet Out To Vote
Religion and Political ParticipationIf you are religious, then you vote with the party that represents your views. Some religions don't allow them to vote so they don't.
Checks and Balances on the Other BranchesEach of the three branches of government can limit the powers of the others, each branch checks the power of the other branches to make sure that the power is balanced between them.

Section 12

Question Answer
House vs. Senate (conduct difference)The "advice and consent" powers, such as the power to approve treaties, are a sole privilege of the Senate. The House, can initiate spending bills and has exclusive authority to impeach officials and choose the President in an Electoral College deadlock.
14th Amendmentcitizenship rights and equal protection of the laws for all people
Entrepreneurial Politicsa business entrepreneur who wants to gain profit through; subsidies, government contracts, or other stuff with the government through political influence
Voter Turnoutthe percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election
Checks on BureaucraciesCongress: Cutting or reducing funding, presidential appointments, committee hearings, etc.
President: executive order, reorganize bureaucracies, reappoint and remove agency heads, etc.

Section 13

Question Answer
Voting CuesHelps individuals know how they should vote
Endorsementsgiving public support to someone or something, by giving them money, or being in their ads.
Interest Groups Politicsinfluence the government to use or accept certain policies or bills. They don't care what anyone else wants, as long as it benefits them.
Bill of Rightsa statement of fundamental rights and privileges
Majoritarian Politicsmajority of the population has the right to make decisions that affect the society.

Section 14

Question Answer
ConservativeA person whose political views favor more local, limited gov., less gov. regulations, particularly in the economy
Client Politicswhen an organized minority or interest group benefits at the expense of the public
Confirmationsto make sure something is right, allowed, or approved of.
Incorporationto add something to a bill, law, etc.
Grassroots CanvassingAverage voter at the local level, being documented

Section 15

Question Answer
Family and Political IdeologyIf a child's parents are republican, then the child will probably grow up to become a republican as well, because those parents ideology were passed down to there child at a young age, so he/she grew up with them.
Federalismsystem of government in which entities such as states or provinces share power with a national government
Voter Motor LawThis was a law to encourage more people to participate in voting, allowed people to register to vote while they renewed their license. The thought was that most people renew their license and it would give them a chance to register at the same time.
Amendment Processmay be proposed either by the Congress with a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention called for by two-thirds of the State legislatures.
Committee Hearingsa meeting of a committee appointed by a legislative body, at which evidence is taken from experts and interested parties on a particular matter being considered by the committee.

Section 16

Question Answer
LobbyistsUses political persuasion to influence legislation and benefit his/her orginization
Pollingrecord the opinion or vote of an election
1st Amendmentfreedom of speech, assembly, petition, press, religion
Electoral College (how it works, how to win, if no one gets 270)Number each state gets is based on the number of representatives and the number of senators that state has. Win state popularity and you get the college. Then it goes to who is most popular.
4th Amendmentmust have a warrant to do a search and seizure

Section 17

Question Answer
Convention Delegatesthey are elected or chosen at the state or local level, with the understanding that they will support a particular candidate at the convention.
CaseworkAssistance given to constituents by congressional members, answering questions/doing favors
5th Amendmentyou must have a lawyer, jury, and a fair judge before you are tried
Primarywhich voters can vote for the Democratic candidates, the Republican candidates, or some from each party, where voters first decide which party they belong to
8th Amendmentno cruel and unusual punishments

Section 18

Question Answer
CaucusLocally held meeting in a state to select delegates who, in turn, will nominate candidates to political offices
10th Amendmentany power that is not given to the federal government is given to the people or the states.
Political Partiesorganized group of people with at least roughly similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office.
James MadisonAuthor of the Constitution
Interest GroupsA group of private citizens whose goal is to influence and shape public policy

Section 19

Question Answer
Factionsa small, organized, dissenting group within a larger one
Issue Advocacyrefers to political advertising focused on broad political issues rather than specific candidates (ex: focusing on abortion instead of Trump)
Media and CongressThe media can influence Congress on how people view a bill by making it seem like the bill that congress wants to pass will or will not help or hurt us.
Media and the PresidentThe media can also influence the president and whether or not he/she gets reelected into office, so they usually try to stay on the medias good side, or even if the bill will get passed or not.
HyperpluralismDemocracy seen as a system of many groups pulling the gov. in many directions at the same time, causing gridlock