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AP GOV 88

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victorsicilia's version from 2017-01-03 22:15

Section

Question Answer
Majority Rule fundamental democratic principal requiring that the majoritys view be respected
Checks and Balancessystem in which each branch of government can limit the power of the other 2 branches
Unitary systemSystem of government in which all power is invested in a central government
Federalism A system of government in which power is divided by a written constitution between a central government and regional goernments
Expressed powersPowers specifically granted to the federal government by the constitution. also enumerated
Implied Powers Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the constitution. derived from elastic or necessary and proper clause
Reserved powersPowers not specifically granted to the national government or denied to the states. held by the states through the tenth amendment
Cooperative FederalismSituations in which the national and state governments work together to complete projects also called fiscal federalism
Categorical Grant Funds provided for a specific and clearly defined purpose
Block GrantFunds Granted to the states for a broadly defined purpose
MandatesRules telling states what they must do to comply with federal guidelines
DevolutionA movement to transfer the responsibillities of governing from the federal government to state and local governments
Political culture A set of widely shared political beliefs and values
Political Socialization the process by which political values are formed and passed from one generation to the next
Public OponionAttitudes abou institutions, leaders, political issues, and events
Political Ideology A cohesive set of beleifs about politics, public-policy, and the role of the government
Political efficacythe beilief that ones political participation makes a difference
Split ticket votingVoting for candidates of different parties for different offices in the same election.
Political partyA group of citizens who organize to win elections, hold public offices, operate governments and determine public policy
Plurality Electionthe winning candidate is the person who recieves more votes than anyone else, but less than half the total
Single member districtAn electoral district from which one person is chosen by the voters for each elected office
Part eraAn historical period dominated by one political party
Critical Electionan election when significant groups of voters change thier traditional patterns of party loyalty
Party realingmentThe majority party is displaced by the minority party, thus ushering new part error
Divided governmenta government in which one party controls the presidency while another party controls congress
Interest group An organization of people whose members share views on specific iterests and attempt to influence public policy to their benefit
PACA committe formed by businesses, labor, or other interest groups to raise money and make contributions to the campains of political candidates who they support
Free Ridrs People who benefit Fro an interest group without making any contributions
Power elite theorythe theory that a small number of very wealthy individuals, Powerful corporate interest groups, and large financial institutions dominate key policy areas
Pluralist theory the theory that many interest groups compete for power in a large number of policy areas
Hyperpluralist theorythe theory that government poicy is weakened and often contradictory because there are so many competing interest groups
Mass mediaMeans of communication such as newspapers,radio, television, and the internet that can reach large, widely dispersed audiences
Linkage instituitions institutions that connect citizens to government. the mass media, interest groups, and political parties are the thre main
Horse race journalismThe tendancy of the media to cover campains by emphasizing how candidates stand in the polls instead of where they stand on the isues
Congressional redistrictingthe rellocation of the number of representatives each state has in the house of representatives
Gerrymandering the legislative process by which the majority party in each state legislature reraws congressional districts to ensure the maximum number of seats for its candidates
Incumbent an officeholder who is seeking realection
Franking privelidgeThe right of members of congres to mail newsletters to thier constituients at the governments expense
standing committepermanen subject matter congressional committes that handle legislation and oversee the buarcracy
Confrence committess temporary bodies that are formed to resolve differences between house and senate versions of a bill
House rules committe the houserules committe sets guidelines for floor debate
House ways and means committehouse committes that handles tax bills
Seniority Unwritten rule in both houses of congress reserving committe chairs to members of the committe with the longest records of continous service
Filibuster A way of delaying or preventing action on a bill by using lng speeces and unlimited debate
Cloturea senat motion to end a filibuster
Logrolling Tactic of mutual aid and vote trading among legislaturs
oversightCongressional review of the activities of an executive agency, deprtment, or office
delegate role of representationWhen memebers of congress cast votes based on the wishes of their constitunts
Closed primaryA primary in whch voters are required to identify a party prefrence before the election and are not allowed to split their ticket
frontloadingthe recent pattern of states holding primaries early in order to maximise thier media attention and political influence
Soft moneyContributions to political parties for party building activities.
Vetothe presidents constitutional power to reject a bill passed by congress
Line item vetoThe power to veto a specific doallar amounts or line items from major congressional spending bills
executive AgreementA pact between the president and a head of a forign state
Executive privelege The presidents power to refuse to disclose confidential information
Lame duck Periodthe period of time in which the prsidents term is about to come to an end
BuracracyA large, complex organization of appointed officials
Executive orderA directive, order, or regulation issued by the president
Iron triangleAn alliance among an administrative agency, an interest group, and a congressional commite
Issue networka network that includes policy experts, media pundits, congessional staff members, and interest groups who regulary debate an issue
policy agendaa set of issues and problems that policy makers consider important
appelate jurisdictionthe authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court
senatorial courtesyan unwitten tradition whereby the senate will ot confirm nominations for lower court positions that are opposed by a senator of the presidets own party from the state in which the nominee is to sere
Writ of Certiorarian order by the supreme court directing a lower court to send up the record in a given case for its reviews
Rule of four the supreme court will hear a case if four justices agree to do so
solicitor general the solicitor general is responsible for handeling all appeals on behalf of the united states government to the supreme court
amicus curia BriefA friend of the court brief filed by an interest group or interest group or interested party to influence a supreme court decision
Stare decisislet the decision stand based on pat decisions
Judicial restraintphilosphy that the supreme court should use precedent and the framers original intent to decide cases
Judicial Activismphilosophy that the supreme court must correct injustices when other branches of government or the states refuse to do so
Monetary policymonetary policy involves regulating the money supply,controlling inflation, and adjustinginterest rates
Fiscal policyRaising and lowering taxes
Entiltlement programA government sponsored program that provides mandated benefits to those who meet eligibillity requirements.
Office of management and budgetresponsible for preparing the budget that the president submits to congress
Civil libertieslegal and constitutional rights that protect indiviuals from arbuitrary acts of government
Civil RightsPolicies designed to protect people against arbuitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals
Selective incorporationthe case by case process by which libeties listed in the bill of rights have been applied to the states uing the due process of law. fourtenth amendment
Establishment clauseA provision of the first amendment that prohibits congress from establishing an official government sponsored religion
Free Excercise clause A provision of the first amendant that gurantees each person the right to beileve what he or she wants
Clear and present danger testjudicial interpretation of the first amendment that government may not ban speech unless it poses an imminent threat to society
Writ of habeus corpusA court order directing that a prisoner be brought before a court and that the court officers show cause why the prisoner should not be released
bill of attainera legislative act that provides for the punishment of a person without a cort or trial
Exclusionary ruleSupreme court guideline that prohibits evidence obtained by illegal searches or seizures from being admitted in court
Miranda WarningsWarnings that police must read to suspects prior to questioning that advises them of thier rights
Strict ScrutinySupreme court rule that classification by race and ethnic backround is inherently suspect and must be justified by a compelling public interest
Affirmative actionA policy requiring federal agencies, universities, and most employers to take positive steps to remedy the effects of past discrimination
memorize