AP Euro Examrename
xisawidu's version from 2015-05-08 01:24
|Enlightened philosopher admired by the Jacobins; wrote "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality" and "On the Social Contract;" "Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains."||Jean-Jacques Rousseau.|
|"The Father of Modern Science."||Galileo Galilei.|
|Felt people were naturally reasonable; disagreed with Thomas Hobbes.||John Locke.|
|Enlightened philosopher who supported absolutism as long as it led to scientific progress and more freedoms for the people.||Voltaire.|
|Painter of the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper.||Leonardo da Vinci.|
|Greatest painter of the Venetian school, who used vivid color and movement.||Titian.|
|Established the Committee of Public Safety and instigated the Reign of Terror.||Robespierre.|
|Enlightened philosopher who believed in the separation of powers (theory of government).||Montesquieu.|
|The English General that defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.||Duke of Wellington.|
|"The Sun King;" moved his Kingdom to Versialles after French revolts in Paris.||Louis XIV.|
|Disagreed with John Locke and supported Enlightened Despotism.||Thomas Hobbes.|
|Universal Gravitation.||Sir Isaac Newton.|
|One of the first modern conservatives; opposed the French Revolution and attempted to prevent it from spreading further.||Edmund Burke.|
|Name of English ruling family including such people as Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I.||Tudor.|
|King of England during the Seven Years' War, American Revolution, and French Revolution.||George III.|
|Most famous work is the 'School of Athens'; modernized library of Pope Julius II.||Raphael.|
|Wrote "What is the Third Estate?"||Abbe Sieyes.|
|Renaissance humanist who opposed the Protestant Reformation; utopia.||Thomas More.|
|King of France during the Revolution who tried to flee and was later executed.||Louis XVI.|
|"Father of Modern Philosophy."||Rene Descartes.|
|German theologist who famously challenged the Church and its practices; wrote the 95 Thesis.||Martin Luther.|
|Wrote "Communist Manifesto." Believed history was class conflict.||Karl Marx.|
|Wrote "The Origin of Species" Evolution; survival of the fittest; natural selection.||Charles Darwin.|
|Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms; supporter of Catholicism; known for his opposition of Luther and the Protestant Reformation.||Charles V.|
|English king that led during the Hundred Years' War.||Henry V.|
|Renaissance sculpture, who created "Pieta" and "David."||Michelangelo.|
|Made alliance against Venetians to regain Papal States.||Pope Julius II.|
|Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center.||Copernicus.|
|English scientist who stressed the importance of experimentation.||Francis Bacon.|
|Published work of many philosophers in the first Encyclopedia.||Denis Diderot.|
|Ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796 and expanded territory in a golden age for the country; encouraged science, art and literature.||Catherine the Great.|
|Early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women.||Mary Wollstonecraft.|
|Overthrew French Directory in 1799 to became emperor of France in 1804 and one of the most popular people of all-time; united Germany after the elimination of many states. Failed to defeat Great Britain in 1814 and was sent to exile.||Napoleon Bonaparte.|
|German Nazi dictator during World War II.||Adolf Hitler.|
|Finance minister under Louis XIV who supported mercantilist efforts; famous for lowering internal tariffs.||Jean-Baptiste Colbert.|
|Florentine sculptor who traveled to Rome in search of the ruins of the Greek and Romans.||Donatello.|
|Protestant reformer, wrote "The Institutes of the Christian Religion", believed in the power of god, the weakness of humanity, and predestination.||John Calvin.|
|Britain leader during World War II, known for his "iron curtain" speech during the darkest days of the war.||Winston Churchill.|
|Ruled Communist Party of Russia from 1922-1953, turning the country into a superpower.||Joseph Stalin.|
|Became the leader of the USSR in 1985, resulting in smoother and better relations with the United States.||Mikhail Gorbachev.|
|Communist who overthrew the Cuban government of Bastita in 1959; promised to make Cuba a democracy, but declared Cuba a Communist state in alliance with the Soviet Union in 1961.||Fidel Castro.|
|Ruled England without parliament for eleven years; created ship money; executed by Parliament in 1649.||Charles I.|
|Boroque era artist, whose most famous piece was "Christ in the Storm on Lake of Galilee."||Rembrandt.|
|Led of the New Model Army to victory against the Cavaliers in the English Civil War; became leader of Britain after Charles I was killed.||Oliver Cromwell.|
|Strengthened royal power.||Henry VII.|
|Created a constitution for the united German Empire, which included universal male suffrage.||Otto von Bismarck.|
|Loathed king for being Catholic.||James II.|
|Astronomer who incorrectly claimed that Earth was the center of the universe and that everything revolved around it; Geocentric Theory.||Ptolemy.|
|Abolished Serfdom.||Joseph II of Austria.|
|Expanded Russia; took away the powers of the nobles; killed people who he thought opposed him.||Ivan the Terrible.|
|Overthrew Ivan the Terrible and built a strong army and navy; adapted western ways.||Peter the Great.|
|CAUSE: Philip VI of French took over the position as king, beginning a war between England and France.|
RESULT: France became united; warfare changed.
|Hundred Years War (1337-1453).|
|CAUSE: Fight between the Yorks and Lancasters over the English throne.|
RESULT: Henry Tudor (Lancaster) won and started the Tudor dynasty.
|War of the Roses (1455-1485).|
|CAUSE: Alliance of Lutheran German princes against Charles V.|
RESULT: War ended in a truce; Peace of Augsburg gave German citizens a choice of religion (Catholicism or Lutheranism).
|Schmalkaldic Wars (1546-1555).|
|CAUSE: Religious issues; nobles, towns and provinces are trying to resist centralization.|
RESULT: Edict of Nantes clarified the religious situation with the Huguenots.
|French Wars of Religion (1562-1598).|
|CAUSE: France felt surrounded by the Hapsburgs; Spain wanted to recapture the Netherlands; Hapsburgs wanted to get rid of protestants; the last major war of religion.|
RESULT: Treaty of Westphalia (German rulers can choose which religion they want and the winning countries expanded their territory).
|30 Years' War (1618-1648).|
|CAUSE: Charles needed money to prevent the Scottish Revolt, but he had to call Parliament.|
RESULT: Radicals won; Charles I was executed and Oliver Cromwell set up a military dictatorship; Rump Parliament.
|English Civil War (1642-1649).|
|CAUSE: James II and VII wanted absolute monarchy and the Divine Right, but the latter was unacceptable to Parliament.|
RESULT: Glorious in the fact that nobody got killed.
|The Glorious Revolution (1688).|
|CAUSE: Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony and Dutch formed the League of Augsburg.|
RESULT: Treaty of Ryswick (France lost most of its land).
|War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697).|
|CAUSE: Spanish ruler left the throne of Spain to Louis XIV’s grandson. Other countries feared a coalition of Spain and France would ruin the balance of power in Europe.|
RESULT: Treaty of Utrecht (Philip became the ruler of Spain, but France and Spain cannot ally together).
|War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713).|
|CAUSE: The estates general was called after 175 years to raise taxes.|
RESULT: The meeting occurred in the Tennis Court Oath and it unified the nobility with the Third Estate.
|French Revolution (1789-1799).|
|CAUSE: Napoleon wanted to expand the French Empire and rule over more territory.|
RESULT: Napoleon’s final defeat at Waterloo to the Duke of Wellington; Congress of Vienna (balance of power).
|Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815).|
|CAUSE: King Charles X issued the July ordinances, which limited the power of the people and increased the power of the king; July Revolution.|
RESULT: Louis Philippe became king.
|French Revolution (1830).|
|CAUSE: Workers revolted when the National Workshops were closed; discussion of new ideas; June Days (army suppressed the radical revolutionary element).|
RESULT: New constitution and President (Louis Napoleon).
|French Revolution (1848).|
|CAUSE: Ottoman Empire was weak and the powers wanted to see what they could take.|
RESULT: Notable for charge of the Light Brigade in 1854 (six hundred men charged); Russia lost most of their land, the Black Sea and modernized.
|Crimean War (1853-1856).|
|CAUSE: Bismarck fought three wars to isolate Austria and France and gain territory.|
RESULT: Germany became unified.
|Wars of German Unification (1871).|
|CAUSE: MAIN (Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism); murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.|
RESULT: Paris Peace Conference/Congress of Vienna; Germany received full blame for the war and had to pay major reparations.
|World War I (1914-1918).|
|CAUSE: Hitler wanted lebensraum (more territory for German to live), so he invaded Poland.|
RESULT: Pearl Harbor bombings (1941), The Holocaust (final solution), the Allies beat the Axis powers, Hitler's suicide (March 30, 1945), bombing of Japan (August 1945), Germany was split into four zones and the United Nations was created.
|World War II (1939-1945).|
|CAUSE: Truman Doctrine (1947; United States wanted to stop communism), Fidel Castro turning Communist with Russia, Berlin Crisis of 1961 (wall put up to split up sides of Soviet).|
RESULT: Many bomb/missile crises in the 1960s, Berlin Wall taken down in 1989, USSR split up in 1991.
|Cold War (1947-1991).|
|Freedom to Huguenots.||Edict of Nantes (1598).|
|Revoked Edict of Nantes.||Edict of Fontainebleau.|
|God chooses kings to rule nations; belief of Louis XIV.||Divine Right of Kings.|
|Peasants who were legally bound to the land where they worked.||Serfs.|
|Used by Russia for gaining territory in the west.||Baltic Sea.|
|Led to the selection of Charles X as king.||July Revolution of 1830.|
|Sought a balance of power.||Congress of Vienna.|
|Representation a successful attack on a symbol of the tyranny of the Old Regime on July 14, 1789.||Bastille.|
|Location of the creation of the National Assembly (new constitution) during the French Revolution in 1789.||Tennis Court Oath.|
|Rumors that nobles were going to kill peasants during the French Revolution.||Great Fear.|
|Five man committee created after the Committee of Public Safety.||Directory.|
|Movement caused by a continuing economic crisis sparked by the price of bread.||October Days (1789).|
|Issued by the National Assembly that broke ties with the Catholic Church, angering the pope and church officials, turning many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.||The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July 1790).|
|Reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and restored some of its civil status (signed by Napoleon and Pope Pius VII).||Concordat of 1801.|
|Called for after the Scotts invaded and abolished ship money.||Long Parliament.|
|Charles I made this tax to get money, which led to objections and Parliament.||Ship Money.|
|European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th century (before the French Revolution), with deductive reasoning, heavily influenced by Descartes, Locke, Newton, Voltaire and Rousseau.||Enlightenment.|
|Breakthrough discovered in science and philosophy that changed the views of the universe; led to a rise in population.||Scientific Revolution.|
|They were the radicals of politics during the French Revolution; anti-king.||Jacobins.|
|Wanted to keep the king during the French Revolution.||Conservatives.|
|Addressed abuses and clarify Catholic Church teachings.||Council of Trent.|
|Deepening of political divisions in France.||Dreyfus Affair.|
|A leader who puts their politics ahead of their religion.||Politique.|
|Most popular good produced in the 1700s.||Textile.|
|Most popular good produced in the 1800s.||Steel.|
|Clergy (one percent of the population); paid no taxes.||First Estate.|
|Nobility (four percent of the population); paid no taxes.||Second Estate.|
|Everyone else; paid one hundred percent of the taxes.||Third Estate (Bourgeoisie).|
|Sale of Church positions; one of the many abuses of the Church during the reformation.||Simony.|
|Excused from a sin by paying money; one of the many abuses of the Church during the reformation.||Indulgences.|
|Holding multiple offices at once; one of the many abuses of the Church during the reformation.||Pluralism.|
|Location of parties thrown by women to present enlightened ideas.||Salons.|
|Policy of Louis XIV (Sun King).||One King, One Law, One Faith.|