AP environmental science - Land and Water use

cetidafo's version from 2016-03-01 16:35

Section 1

Question Answer
Agroforestryharvestable trees/shrubs are grown among/around crops/on pastureland in order to preserve/enhance the producticity of the land
Alley croppingmethod of planting crops in strips w/ rows of trees/shrubs on each side. Increases biodiversity, reduces surface water runoff & erosion, improves utilization of nutrients, reduces wind erosion, etc.
Crop rotationplanting a field w/ different crops from year to year to reduce soil nutrient depletion.
High-input agricultureuses mechanized equipment, chemical fertilizers, pesticides
Industrial agriculture/corporate farmingcharacterized by mechanization, monocultures, use of synthetic inputs (e.g chemical fertilizers, pesticides) w/ emphasis on max. productivity & profitability.
Intercroppinggrow more than one crop on same field, esp. in alternating rows/sections
Interplantinggrowing 2 or more diferent crops in an area at same tme. Plants have similar nutrient and moisture requirements
Low inputdepends on hand tools and natural fertilizers. No large scale irrigation
Low till, no till, conservation till agriculturesoil little disturbed/not at all to reduce soil erosion. Lower labor costs, reduces need for fertilizer, saves energy
monoculturecultivation of single crop
Organic farmingfarming that relies on crop rotation, green manure,compost, biological pest control, mechnical cultivatioon to maitain soil productivity &control pests.
Plantationcommercial tropical agriculture that is export oriented. Exploit natural resources of tropical rain forests for short-term economic gain. Practices include: application of chemical to soil, change in drainage cannals, etc.
Polycultureuses different crops in same place in order to imitate diversity of natural ecosystems. Avoids large stands of a single crop.
Polyvarietal cultivationplanting plot of land w/ several varieties of same crop
Subsistenceagriculture carried out for survival. Few/no crops available for sale. Usually organic
Tillagemethod in whichsurface is plowed, which breaks up & exposes soil. Followed by smoothing, planting. Exposes land to water & wind erosion

Section 2

Question Answer
Green Revolution (1st)1st took place between 1950 &1970. Plats monocultures, using high applications of iorganic fertilizers, pesticides, widespread use of atrificial irrigation systems. Afterwards, crop acreage increased about 25%, crop yield increased 200%. Unsustainable
Green Revolution (2nd)began in the 1970s, continuing today. Involves growing genetically engineered crops that produce most yields per acre.
3 main goals of sustainable agriculture1. environmental health. 2. economic profitabilty. 3. social & economic equity
Types of pesticides1. biological (living organisms control). 2. carbamates. 3. chlorinated hydrocarbons. 4. fumigants. 5. inorganic (broad-based). 6. organic/natural (derived from plants). 7. organophosphates (extremely toxicbut stay in enviro for short time)

Section 3

Question Answer
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Control Act (FIFRA)1949. regulates manufacture & use of pesticides. Pesticides must be labeled, approved. Leabels must have directions for use, disposal
Fed. Environmental Pesticies Control Act (1972)requires registration of all pesticides iin US commerce
Food Quality Protection Act (1996)Stresses protection of infants and children in reference to pesticide residue in food.

Section 4

Question Answer
World's forests5% tree plantations, 63% secondary-growth, 22% old-growth.
Forest firesCrown fires, ground fires, surface fires
Impoverished school (deforestation)major cause of deforestation is growing # of poor
Neoclassical school (deforestation)major cause: "open-property rights_
Political-ecology school (deforestation)major cause: entrepreneurs.
Rainforestscurrently cover 6% of Earth's land surface (used to be 14%). Can be used up in 40 years
Rainforest species home to more than half of world's 10 million species of plants, animals, insects
Amazon Basincontains more than 20% of world's freshwater
Tropical deforestationreleases abppr. 25% of CO2 amount released by fossil fuel burning
Forestsappr. 1/3 of all land surface worldwide. 80%: closed canopy. 20%: open canopy
One pound of wood:tree uses 1.5 pounds (0.7kg) of CO2, gives off 1 pound (0.5 kg) of O2

Section 5

Question Answer
Forest Reserve Act (1891)gave ppresident authority to est. forest reservations from public domain lands
Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act (1960, '68)directs US Secretary of Agriculture to manage national forests for recreation, wildlife habitat, timber production thru principles of multiple use & sustained yield
Fed. Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA)1976. outlines policy concerning use, preservation of public lands in US. Grants fed. gov't jurisdiction on consequences of mining on public lands.Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of the Interior) responible for managing all public lands not within national forests/nation parks. With Taylor Grazing Act
Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (FRRRPA)1976. aka National Forest Management Act. Requires secretary of agriculture to develoe a management sysem for national forest lands based on multiple use, sustained yield principles. Addresses timber harvesting rates, methods, locations
National Forests Management Act (1976)authorized creation & use of a special fund in situations involving salvage of insect-infested, dead, damaged, downed timber and to remove associated trees for stand improvement.
Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA)1974. mandates periodic assessments of forests, rangelands in US> Directs that assessment be conducted by Forest Serviece and consider broad range of renewable resources.
Public Rangelands Improvement Act (1978)est., reaffirmed commitment to manage, maintain, improve rangelands so that they become as productive as feasible
Taylor Grazing Act (1934)requires grazing permits on fed. land
Rangelands40% of landmass of US. Dominant type of land in arid, semiarid regions

Section 6

Question Answer
Federal Aid Highway Act (1956)authorized construction of Interstate Highway System. Fed. gov't agreed to fund 90% of construction osts for the interstate. States would provide remaining funds, administer construction projects, own and operate completed interstate highways
Roadless Area Conservation Rule (2001)places about 1/3 of national forest system 's total acreage off limits to all road building, logging. More than 1/2 of national forest land is already open to this. Protects 59 million acres of unspoiled national forest land in 39 states. Preserves all current opportunities for public access, recreation.
Fed. Land Policy and Management Act (1976)outlined policy cincerning use, preservation of public lands. Granted fed. jurisdiction on consequences of mining on public lands
Yellowstone National Park Act (1872)preserves watershed of Yellowstone River. 1st time public lands were preserves for public enjoyment and were to be administered by fed. gov't
National Park Service Act (1916)est. that national parks are to be maintained in a way that leaves them unimpaired for future generations. Est. the National Park Service to manage parks
Outdoor Recreation Act (1963)laid down the Interior Dept. 's role as coordinator of all fed. agencies for programs affecting conservation, developemenr of recreational resources
Wilderness Act (1964)wilderness defined by its lack of noticeable human modification/presence. Fed. officials required to manage wilderness ares in a way conducive to retention of their wilderness character
Land and Water Conservation Fund (1964)est. a fund to assist states and fed. gov't in meeting present, future outdoor recreation demands and needs of Americans. administered by National Park Service
National Trails System Act (1968)est. national system of recreational, scenic, historic trails
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968)est. system of areas distinct from trad. park concept to ensure protection of each river's environment. Also preservescertain selected rivers that possess outstanding scenic, recreational, geological, cultural, historic values and maintains their free flowing condition.

Section 7

Question Answer
Countries w/ most wetlandsCanada, Russian Federation, Brazil
US wetlandsused to be 10% of land area: now 5% (most in Louisiana, Florida)
mitigationto moderate/alleviate in force/intensity
Global crude oil reserve45-70% depleted. expected to last 50 more years.
Coallargest source of fuel used to produce electricity. China: alrgest producer. global reserve estimated to last appr. 300 more years
Natural gas reservesmost in Middle East (34%) Europe, Russian Federation, former countires of USSR own 42% of reserves

Section 8

Question Answer
General Mining Law (1872)grants free access to individuals, corporations to prospect for minerals in public domain lands and allows them to stake claim on that deposit (if find)
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977(est. program for regulating surface coal mining, reclamation activities
Oceans1% of all human food. 10% of world's protein source.
Aquaculture80% of all mollusks, 40% of all shrimp, 75% of all kelp (for raising)
Fish and Wildlife Act (1956) est. comprehensive national fish, shellfish resource policy directed primarily to industry
Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (1980)assistance in training of state fish and wildlife enforcement personnel, assistance to states in developemtn and revision of conservation plans for nongame fish, wildlife
Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001)coutnries committed to reduce and/or eliminate production, use, and/or release of 12 ersistent organic pollutants of greatest concern (PCBs). est. mechanism by which additional chemical may be added to the Treaty in the future.
World Banksource of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. Environment strategy: 1. improving quality of life. 2. improving quality f growth. 3. protecting quality of regional, global commons thru "greening" of investments.