AP court cases

qiangli20171's version from 2017-05-04 00:14


Question Answer
Marbury v. MadisonEstablished the principle of judicial review. Strengthened the power of the judicial branch by giving the Supreme Court the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
McCulloch v. MarylandConfirmed the right of Congress to utilize implied powers to carry out its expressed powers. Validated the supremacy of the national government over the states by declaring that states cannot interfere with or tax the legitimate activities of the federal government.
Gibbons v. OgdenStrengthened the power of the federal government to regulate interstate commerce. Established the commerce clause role as a key vehicle for the expansion of federal power.
Engel v. VitaleStruck down state-sponsored prayer in public schools. Ruled that the Regents' prayer was an unconstitutional violation of the Establishment Clause
Lemon v. KurtzmanStruck down state funding for private religious schools. Ruled that state aid to church-related schools must meet three tests: (a) the purpose of the aid must be clearly secular, (b) the government's action must neither advance nor inhibit religion, and (c) the government's action must not foster an "excessive entanglement" between government and religion.
Reynolds v. United StatesBanned polygamy.Distinguished between religious beliefs that are protected by the Free Exercise Clause and religious practices that may be restricted. Ruled that religious practices cannot make an act legal
Oregon v. SmithBanned the use of illegal drugs in religious ceremonies. Ruled that the government can act when religious practices violate criminal laws.
Schenck v. United StatesRuled that free speech could be limited when it presents a "clear and present danger .... ". Established the "clear and present danger" test to define conditions under which public authorities can limit free speech.
New York Times v. SullivanRuled that public officials cannot win a suit for defamation unless the statement is made with "actual malice."Established the "actual malice" standard to promote "uninhibited, robust, and wide-open" public debate.
Roth v. United StatesRuled that obscenity is not constitutionally protected free speech. Created the "prevailing community standards" rule
Tinker v. Des MoinesProtected some forms of symbolic speech. Ruled that students do not "shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate."
Texas v. JohnsonRuled that flag burning is a form of symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.


Question Answer
Barron v. Balitmore (1833)The Supreme Court decision holding that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government, not the states and cities.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)Established precedent for the doctrine of selective incorporation, thus extending most of the requirements of the Bill of Rights to the states
Mapp v. OhioExtended the exclusionary rule to the states. Illustrated the process of selective incorporation through Due Process Clause of the 14th amendament.
Miranda v. ArizonaRuled that the police must inform criminal suspects of their constitutional rights before questioning suspects after arrest. Required police to read the Miranda rules to criminal suspects.
Gideon v. WainwrightRuled that the Sixth Amendment right-to-counsel provision applies to those accused of major crimes under state laws.Illustrated the process of incorporation by which the Sixth Amendment was applied to the states through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Plessy v. FergusonUpheld Jim Crow segregation by approving "separate but equal" public facilities for African Americans
Brown v. Board of EducationRuled that racially segregated schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Reversed the principle of "separate but equal" established in Plessy v. Ferguson.
University of California v. BakkeOrdered the Medical School at the University of California at Davis to admit Bakke. Ruled that the medical school's strict quota system denied Bakke the equal protection guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment. Ruled that race could be used as one factor among others in the competition for available places.
Griswold v. ConnecticutRuled that a Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. Established an important precedent for Roe v. Wade.
Roe v. WadeRuled that the decision to obtain an abortion is protected by the right to privacy implied by the Bill of Rights.
Baker v. CarrRule that the judicial branch of government can rule on the matters of legislative apportionment. Used the principle of "one person, one vite". Order state legislative district to be as equal as possible.
Wesberry v. SandersEstablished the principe of "one person, one vote" in drawing congressional districts. Triggered widespead redistricting that gave cities and suburbs greater representation in Congress.
United States v. NixonRuled that there is no constitutional guarantee of unqualified executive privilege.
Buckley v. ValeoUpheld federal limits on campaign contributions. Struck down the portion of the Federal Election Campaign Act limiting the amount of money individuals can contribute to their own campaign. Ruled that spending money on one's own campaign is a form of constituionally protected free speech. Complicated congressional efforts to enact significant campaign finance reform.


Question Answer
Citizens United v. FECcorporations have a 1st Amendment right to expressly support political candidates for Congress and the White House
New York Times v. United StatesGovernment can almost never use prior restraint (crossing out sections of an article before publication)-protections for the press were established here. Defense Department employee Daniel Ellsburg leaked some confidential files indicating that the war in Vietnam was going poorly, the government sought to prevent the publication of these "Pentagon Papers" by the New York Times. Court held that executive efforts to prevent the publication violated the 1st Amendment were forbidden
Dred Scott v. SandfordThe 1957 Supreme Court decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories.