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AP Chemistry - Zumdahl - Key Terms - Chapter 2 - Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

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celine's version from 2014-02-17 02:06

Section

Question Answer
a Group 1A metal.Alkali Metal
a Group 2A metal.Alkaline Earth Metal
a negative ion.Anion
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.Atomic Number
the weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring element.Atomic Weight
a molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but shows bond relationships clearly.Ball-and-Stick Model
a two-element compound. Binary Compound
the "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in a partially evacuated tube; a stream of electrons. Cathode Ray
a positive ion. Cation
the force or, more accurately, the energy, that holds two atoms together in a compound.Chemical Bond
the representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms present and subscripts are used to show the relative numbers of atoms.Chemical Formula
a type of bonding in which electrons are shared by atoms. Covalent bonding
a negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom.Electron
a Group 7A element.Halogen
an atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge.Ion
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. Ionic Bonding
a solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to give a solution containing the separated ions which are mobile and thus free to conduct electrical current. Ionic soild (salt)
atoms of the same element (the same number of protons) with different numbers of neutrons. They have identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers. Isotopes
mass is neither created nor destroyed.Law of conservation of mass
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. Law of definite proportion
a law stating that when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers. Law of multiple proportions
the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an atom.Mass number
an element that gives up electrons relatively easily and is lustrous, malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity.Metal
a bonded collection of two or more atoms of the same or different elements.Molecule
a particle in the atomic nucleus with mass virtually equal to the proton’s but with no charge.Neutron
a Group 8A element.Noble Gas
an element not exhibiting metallic characteristics. Chemically, a typical nonmetal accepts electrons from a metal.Nonmetal
an atom having a dense center of positive charge (the nucleus) with electrons moving around the outside.Nuclear atom
the small, dense center of positive charge in an atom.Nulcleus
a chart showing all the elements arranged in columns with similar chemical properties. Periodic table
an ion containing a number of atoms.Polyatomic ion
a positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus.Proton
the spontaneous decomposition of a nucleus to form a different nucleus.Radioactive Decay (Radio Activity)
a model of a molecule showing the relative sizes of the atoms and their relative orientations.Space-filling model
the representation of a molecule in which the relative positions of the atoms are shown and the bonds are indicated by lines. Structural Formula
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