AP Biolgy - Campbell - Chapter Quiz - Chapter 45 - Osmoregulation and Excretion

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Section 1

Question Answer
The urethra is identified by the letter _____. E
Urine formed by a kidney collects in the _____ before being drained from the kidney by the _____ and transported to the _____.renal pelvis ... ureter ...urinary bladder
Filtrate is formed as fluid is forced through the walls of the glomerulus and, initially, collects in the structure indicated by the letter _____.B
The _____ are the major blood vessels transporting blood to the kidneys.renal arteries
The outer part of the kidney is the _____. cortex
Which of these is the functional unit of a kidney?nephron
The movement of substances out of the glomerulus and into Bowman's capsule is referred to as _____.filtration
The movement of substances from the blood into the proximal tubule is known as _____. secretion
Which of these is reabsorbed from filtrate?all of these
As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtrate. more ... water
The most abundant solute in urine is _____.urea (and other nitrogenous wastes)
Which arrow indicates the direction of a gradient of increasing solute concentration in the interstitial fluid surrounding a nephron?A only
Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____. active transport
Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced. more concentrated urine
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes the _____ permeable to water.collecting duct

Section 2

Question Answer
Osmoconformers are animals that _____. have an internal environment isoosmotic with their external environment, which does not require expending energy
In a marine environment, animals that are isoosmotic relative to their environment _____.experience no net water loss by osmosis
Which type of organism would have the least chance of long-term survival in the given environment?stenohaline animals that move between fresh water and seawater
Freshwater fish excrete a large amount of very dilute urine. What is the best explanation for this?Because they live in a hypoosmotic solution, their cells take up excess water that must be excreted.
Dehydration in animals _____.may be less damaging in the presence of sugar
Most of our nitrogen-containing waste products are a result of ______. protein metabolism
Most aquatic animals excrete ammonia, while land animals excrete urea or uric acid. What is the most likely explanation for this difference?Ammonia is very toxic, and it takes lots of water to dilute it.
In our bodies, the primary nitrogen-containing compound excreted by our kidneys is ______.urea
The most effective molecule for nitrogenous waste disposal in desert animals would be _____.uric acid because it does not require water for excretion
Many birds, insects, and reptiles excrete nitrogenous wastes in the form of uric acid, which _____.forms solids that are relatively insoluble and nontoxic
Which one of the following is not a function of the excretory system? elimination of undigested foods
Which of the following is filtered from blood but not normally found in urine?amino acids
The filtrate formed by the nephrons in the kidney is not urine. The filtrate is first refined and concentrated by the processes of ______, which form the urine that leaves the body. reabsorption and secretion
Metanephridia are found in _____ and function in_____.annelids ... excretion and osmoregulation
Which of the following is the most accurate and comprehensive description of the function of kidneys? the regulation of body fluid composition

Section 3

Question Answer
Which one of the following is a tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder?ureter
The functional units of kidneys are _____.nephrons
The bed of capillaries in a vertebrate kidney where water, urea, and salts are filtered out of the blood is the _____. glomerulus
In each nephron of the kidney, the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule _____.filter the blood and capture the filtrate
In each nephron of the kidney, the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule carry out the _____. filtration of plasma
The fluid that enters vertebrate nephrons is called the filtrate. Where does the filtrate come from?blood capillaries
Which one of the following substances is generally not filtered from the blood by the kidneys?plasma proteins
Which is an accurate statement about the anatomy of the human excretory system?The loop of Henle is located between the proximal tubule and the distal tubule.
Which of the following statements is not correct?A collecting duct receives filtrate from only one nephron.
Which is not an accurate pairing of a key excretory function with its definition?Reabsorption is the process where toxins, drugs, and excessive ions that remain in the blood after filtration are transported into the nephron for disposal in the urine.
All of the following processes occur in the nephron of the kidney except _____. blood cell formation
As filtrate passes through the long loop of Henle, salt is removed and concentrated in the interstitial fluid of the kidney medulla. Because of this high salt concentration, the nephron is able to _____. establish a hyperosmotic interstitial medullary concentration
What is the function of the ascending loop of Henle?It helps maintain the concentration gradient of NaCl in the interstitial fluid, thus increasing water reabsorption.
The lowest osmotic potential inside a nephron will be found in _____.the thick segment of the ascending limb and the distal tubule
At a particular position along a nephron, the osmotic potential of the filtrate is 500 mosm/L while the surrounding kidney's is 600 mosm/L. Which one of the following is a likely result?Water will diffuse out of the nephron by osmosis.

Section 4

Question Answer
What is the function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body?During times of higher solute concentrations, ADH causes more water to be released from the nephrons to be reabsorbed by the blood.
Secretion of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) from the ______ occurs in response to _____ and causes ______. pituitary gland ... high blood osmolarity ... increased permeability to water of a collecting duct
Alcohol consumption increases urinary output because alcohol ______.inhibits ADH (vasopressin) production and release
What conditions are responsible for the stimulation of the JGA (juxtaglomerular apparatus)?a decrease in the blood pressure or blood volume in the afferent arteriole
The loops of Henle in the kidneys of a desert kangaroo rat are much longer than those in a white laboratory rat because the _____. kangaroo rat is adapted to living in an environment where water is scarce